Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton

Inguquko kwinzululwazi eyaqala UNicolaus Copernicus kwi-Renaissance, yaqhubeka kunye UGalileo Galilei kwaye kamva nge Kepler. Ekugqibeleni, incopho yomsebenzi yayisisazinzulu saseBritane esaziwa njenge UIsaac Newton. Wazalwa ngo-1642 kwaye wayengoyena mntu ubalaseleyo kuyo yonke imbali yesayensi. Uye wenza igalelo kwizifundo ezahlukeneyo zesayensi ezinje ngezibalo, inzululwazi ngeenkwenkwezi kunye nokukhanya. Nangona kunjalo, eyona nto inempembelelo kuzo zonke ifiziksi.

Kule nqaku siza kuthetha nge-biografi kunye nokuxhaphaka kuka-Isaac Newton ukuze wazi enye yeengcali zesayensi nzulu.

Imisebenzi emikhulu

UNewton uyafunda

Ukufumanisa izinto kunye nokuguqula isayensi, kwafuneka kuqala azi izifundo ezazisele zipapashiwe malunga nokuhamba kwemithetho kaGalileo kunye noKepler echaza iindlela zeeplanethi. Yiyo loo nto uNewton ikwazile ukuseka imithetho esisiseko esiyaziyo ngamandla kwi-physics. Le mithetho yile ye-inertia, ukulingana kwamandla, umthetho wokukhawulezisa kunye nomgaqo wokusebenza kunye nokuphendula. Ngombulelo kolu lwazi, wayeqhubeka ephanda iimfihlakalo zefiziksi ade akwazi ukumisela umthetho womxhuzulane kwindalo iphela.

Lonke uluntu lwenzululwazi lothuswa kukufumanisa kukaIsaac Newton. Ubudlelwane phakathi kwamandla nokunyakaza bunokuchaza kwaye buqikelele umkhondo we-orbit ye- Iplanethi ebomvu, kwangaxeshanye inokudibanisa bonke oomatshini ababekhona phakathi koMhlaba kunye nommandla ongaphandle.

I-Aristotelianism yayiqhubeka kwaye igcina ubukhosi bayo phantse iminyaka engama-2.000 XNUMX. Ngombulelo kwinkqubo eyenziwe nguNewton ngemithetho yesindululo, angaluphelisa ulwazi luka-Aristotle kwaye yenza iparadigm entsha egcinwe kwada kwasekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, xa enye ingqondi egama linguAlbert Einstein yenza ifomula ithiyori yolwalamano.

I-Biography

Izinto ezenziwa nguNewton

Ubuntwana bukaNewton babungelula. Wazalwa ngoDisemba 25, 1642 kwilali eyaziwa ngokuba yiWoolsthorpe. Utata wakhe wayesandula ukusweleka kwimishini njengomnini mhlaba. Xa wayeneminyaka emi-3, umama wakhe watshata kwakhona kwaye waya kuhlala nomyeni wakhe omtsha, eshiya uNewton egcinwe ngumakhulu wakhe ongumama. Emva kweminyaka eli-12, umama wakhe waba ngumhlolokazi kwakhona kwaye wabuyela kwilali kunye nelifa kule ndoda yesibini. Xa umama wakhe wasweleka ngo-1679, wafumana ilifa.

Umlingiswa wakhe wagqitywa ngokuba ngumntu ongenangqondo, onokuthula kunye nokucamngca. Wayengahlali edlala namanye amakhwenkwe, kodwa wayekhetha ukwakha izixhobo zokusebenza kunye nezinto ezaziza kudlalwa ngamantombazana.

NgoJuni 1661, wamkelwa kwiKholeji yaseTrinity, eCambridge, kwaye wabhalisa njengesicaka. Oku kuthetha ukuba ubuyifumana inkxaso yakho ngokutshintshela ezinye iinkonzo zekhaya. Kulapho aqala khona izifundo zakhe malunga nendlela yokutshintsha kwezinto, ithiyori yemibala kunye neengcinga zokuqala awayecinga ngazo ngomtsalane womxhuzulane. Lo mtsalane womxhuzulane wawugxile ekujikelezeni kwenyanga eyayinawo umhlaba. Yena ngokwakhe wayephethe umsebenzi wokusasaza impumelelo yakhe kwisayensi. Enye yezona zinto aziphumezileyo yayikukucinga ngomxhuzulane ngokujonga nje iapile liwa emthini wegadi. Kulapho ke waqala khona ukucinga malunga nokuba kutheni iapile liwele emhlabeni kunye nayo yonke into enxulumene nomxhuzulane.

UVoltaire wayephethe ukusasaza lonke ibali likaNewton ngokuprintwa. Wayengutitshala iminyaka eliqela kwaye akubonakali ngathi le mithwalo yokufundisa yayiyinto eyayimthintela ekuqhubekeni nezifundo zakhe.

Iziphumo ezibalulekileyo

Apple kunye newton

Malunga neli xesha, u-Isacc Newton wabhala ukubonakaliswa kwakhe okucwangcisiweyo kokuqala kwi-calculus engapheliyo. Zapapashwa kwiminyaka eyadlulayo xa ifomula eyaziwayo yokuphuhliswa kwamandla ebinomial nayo nayiphi na into ekhutshiweyo, zombini inani elipheleleyo kunye nenxalenye, yafunyanwa.

Waye wafumanisa nje kuphela kwimathematika, kodwa kwihlabathi yokukhanya. Isahluko sesayensi awakhetha ukusigubungela kwiiklasi zakhe yayikukukhanya. Wayenayo le ngqwalaselo ikhethekileyo kulo mbandela ukusukela nge1666 kwaye wayefuna ukuyizisa ekufumaneni. Ngo-1672 wayesele enalo unxibelelwano lokuqala ngalo mbandela ngenxa yokuba uMbutho wooNzululwazi wamkhetha njengomnye wamalungu alo. Kungenxa yokuba wakhe isibonakude esibonakalisayo. Ubuchule bukaNewton bokubonelela ngobungqina bovavanyo ngezinto awazifumanisayo babungenakuphikiswa. Wayekwazi ukufundisa ukuba ukukhanya okumhlophe kwakungumxube wemibala eyahlukileyo kwaye nganye yayinokuhluka okuhlukileyo xa idlula kwiprism ebonakalayo.

Ngo-1679, wayengekho eCambridge iinyanga ezininzi ngenxa yokusweleka kukamama wakhe. Ekubuyeni kwakhe, wafumana ileta evela kuye URobert hooke, unobhala weRoyal Society, apho wazama ukumqinisekisa ukuba abuyisele unxibelelwano neziko kwaye waphakamisa ukuba kungenzeka ukuba aphendule. Iingcamango zikaHooke ezazijongana nokushukuma kwezijikelezi-langa ezijikeleza.

Kwiminyaka kamva, uEdmond Halley, ngelo xesha owayesele eyibonile Halley comet, watyelela uNewton embuza ukuba unganjani umjikelo weplanethi xa amandla omxhuzulane ancipha ngesikwere somgama. Impendulo kaNewton yakhawuleza: i ellipse.

Iminyaka edlulileyo

Umbutho wasebukhosini

Umsebenzi wakhe, iMathematika yeMigaqo yeFilosofi yeNdalo, waba nodumo nangona ukufunda kwakunzima. Wanyulwa yiyunivesithi njengommeli ka-King James II epalamente. Wayesempilweni entle ukususela ebusaneni ukuya kwiminyaka yokugqibela yobomi bakhe. Ekuqaleni kuka-1722, isifo sezintso sabangela isifo sezintso ezininzi. Ngexesha lokugqibela leminyaka, wayegula kakhulu kwesi sifo. Ekugqibeleni, wasweleka ngentsasa yango-Matshi 20, 1727 emva kokwala ukufumana uncedo lokugqibela lweCawe.

Njengoko ubona, uIsaac Newton wayengumvukeli wokwenyani wesayensi kwaye igalelo lakhe lisakhunjulwa namhlanje njengenye yezona zinto zibalaseleyo kwezenzululwazi kwihlabathi.


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