URobert hooke

URobert hooke

URobert hooke Wayengusosayensi omkhulu owanikezela ngezimvo ezininzi kunye nenkqubela phambili kwisayensi. Wayekwayifilosofi yendalo. Wayengunjingalwazi wejometri kunye nomvavanyi kwisixeko saseLondon, eNgilane. Wayesaziwa ngegalelo lakhe elikhulu kwi-physics, microscopy, biology kunye ne-architecture. Waqulunqa izixhobo ezinje nge-thermometer yotywala, i-hygrometer, i-anemometer kunye nezinye izixhobo, ezililifa elibalulekileyo kwisayensi nakubuntu.

Kule posi siza kudlulela kwixesha elidlulileyo ukuze sifunde ngebhayiloji kunye nezinto ezazisenziwa nguRobert Hooke ebomini bakhe bonke. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ukubaluleka kwesi sazinzulu kwihlabathi lenzululwazi? Apha sichaza yonke into ngokweenkcukacha 🙂

Ubomi kunye nokufa kukaRobert Hooke

Westminster

Wazalwa ngoJulayi 18, 1635. Wayengowokugqibela kubantakwabo abane, amakhwenkwe amabini kunye namantombazana amabini. Kuthiwa wayenobulolo kwaye ekhathazekile ebuntwaneni, wayenengxaki yokuqaqanjelwa yintloko kunye nesisu, esamthintela ekudlaleni kakuhle nabantwana abalingana naye. Ubulolo njengomntwana bamenza wadlala ngobuchule obukhulu kunye nokucinga. Wenza ii-sundials, ii-watermill, iinqanawa ezikwaziyo ukudubula iimbumbulu, wathatha iwotshi yobhedu wayakha kwakhona ngomthi, esebenza ngokugqibeleleyo.

Ngexesha lobutsha bakhe uHooke wayeyinxalenye ye Ikwayara yeCawa yaseCathhedral yeDiocese yaseOxford (Ikholeji yaseChris Church). Eli xesha lelona labumba uHooke kumnqweno wakhe wesayensi. Wayenomdla kwimisebenzi eyahlukeneyo yolondolozo eyenziweyo, kuba wayecinga ukuba bayasongelwa ngabakhuseli.

Iintlanganiso zenzululwazi ephezulu, ifilosofi kunye nokubaluleka kwengqondo zazibanjelwe kwiSikolo saseWestminster, ke uRobert waya kuzo uninzi lwazo. Ngelixa abo afunda nabo babesenza imidlalo edlalayo, uHooke wayegxile ekwenzeni imali. Waqala ukwenza imali njengomncedisi weekhemikhali. Kamva waba ngumncedisi waselebhu. Ngelo xesha, i-1658, ukwakhiwa kwempompo yomoya okanye i "machina boyleana" yenziwa, isekwe kuleyo kaRalph Greatorex, uHooke amthatha "njengoMkhulu kakhulu kuwo nawuphi na umsebenzi omkhulu".

Wayenobuchule obukhulu kwimathematics. Emva kwemisebenzi yakhe emininzi ukusebenza kwakhe kakuhle kwamkelwa kwaye wanconyelwa kwisikhundla sokuqala somphathi weRoyal Society yaseLondon. Esi sikhundla sifuna ukuba sisazinzulu esikhulu sovavanyo kunye nobungcali. URobert Hooke uzinikele ngokusisigxina kwiiprojekthi zakhe.

Ekugqibeleni wasweleka ngoMatshi 3, 1703 kwisixeko saseLondon. IRoyal Society yaseLondon imnike imbeko enkulu ngayo yonke imisebenzi esiyibonayo ngezantsi.

Ukufunyanwa

Konke malunga noRobert Hooke

UHooke uchithe ixesha lakhe esebenza noBoyle noBoyle becebisa imishini kuye yokuyila nokwakha impompo enokucinezela umoya ukuze uvelise isithuba. Bachitha iminyaka befunda isayensi yeegesi de bayifumana. Ukufumanisa kwakhe okokuqala yayiyimpompo yomoya.

Ngalempompo ukunyuka komoya kunye neziphumo abanamava kuzo amaxesha amaninzi. Ndiyabulela kule mpompo, ifomula ye Umthetho wegesi. Kulo mthetho unokuqinisekiswa ukuba umthamo wegesi ulungelelene kangakanani na kuxinzelelo olunalo.

Amandla

Izinto ezenziwe nguRobert Hooke

Enye into ayifumeneyo yayiyimbumba. Wayejongana nokuvuza kwamanzi kunye nolunye ulwelo ngeetyhubhu zeglasi ezincinci. Kolu vavanyo kwafunyaniswa ukuba ukuphakama apho amanzi afikelela khona kunxulumene nobubanzi betyhubhu. Oku ngoku kubhekiswa kuko njengentloko.

Oku kufumanisa kwapapashwa ngeenkcukacha ezinkulu kwincwadi yakhe ethi "Micrography." Ngombulelo kule misebenzi wakwazi ukuba nesikhundla somgcini kwiRoyal Society yaseLondon.

Iiseli kunye nethiyori yeseli

Enkosi ngemakroskopu, uHooke wafumanisa ukuba iphepha lekhokho linemingxunya emincinci efana nencindi yobusi. Umngxuma ngamnye wawusibiza ngokuba sisisele. Into awayengayazi kukuba kubalulekile ukuba ezi seli ziya kuba kumgaqo-siseko wezinto eziphilayo.

Kwaye uRobert wayebukele iiseli zezityalo ezifileyo zikwimo yepholigoni. Kwiminyaka kamva, izicwili zezinto eziphilayo zaziza kufunyanwa ngenxa yombono wazo phantsi kwemicroscope.

Olunye ufunyaniso lwalunombulelo kulwazi awayenalo malunga nokuhlelwa kweeseli. Ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ngolwazi olunikelwe nguRobert Hooke, iziphathamandla zethiyori yeseli zinokuqhutywa:

  • Zonke izinto eziphilayo zenziwe ngeeseli kunye neemveliso zazo.
  • Iiseli ziiyunithi zesakhiwo kunye nomsebenzi.
  • Zonke iiseli zivela kwiiseli esele zikho. Oku kongezwa ngo-1858 nguVirchow.

Ekupheleni kwale nkulungwane, ezi zifundo zilandelayo zibonise ukuba iiseli zinokusinika unobangela kunye nemvelaphi yezifo ezininzi. Oku kuthetha ukuba ukuba umntu uyagula kungenxa yokuba baneeseli ngaphakathi ezigulayo.

Iplanethi yeUranus

Uranus

Kwakhona wayejongene nokufumanisa iplanethi u-Uranus. Ukwenza oku, wayejonga ii-comets kwaye wazinikezela ekuyileni izimvo malunga nomxhuzulane. Izixhobo ezazifuneka ukulinganisa ukuhamba kwelanga neenkwenkwezi zazenziwe nguye. Konke oku kunike inkqubela phambili yesayensi kunye nokujongwa kwendawo yangaphandle.

Ithiyori yokuhamba kweplanethi

Incwadi kaHooke

Akazange afumanise kuphela iplanethi u-Uranus kodwa wadala iTheory of Planetary Motion. Wayekwazi ukuyila ingxaki yengxaki. Uvakalise imigaqo-nkqubo enomtsalane kwindalo iphela, phakathi kwezona zinto zinamandla ezazithunyelwe kuzo yayilezo zifundeka ngolu hlobo: yonke imizimba ihamba kumgca othe tye, ngaphandle kokuba iphazanyiswe ngamandla athile, oku kuya kubenza ukuba bahambe, nokuba kukwisangqa, ellipse okanye umzekeliso.

Uye wathi yonke imizimba inamandla ayo omxhuzulane kwi-axis okanye kwiziko layo kwaye nayo iyachaphazeleka ngumxhuzulane wemizimba yasezulwini ekufutshane. Ukusondela kwethu kwezinye izidalwa zasezulwini, kokukhona lo mandla womtsalane usichaphazela. Ndizamile nokujonga loo nto Umhlaba uhambe kwi-ellipse ejikeleze iLanga.

Njengoko ubona, uRobert Hooke wenza inkqubela phambili kwezenzululwazi kwaye igama lakhe alinakulityalwa.


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