Ulwandle lweAral

Enye yeentlekele ezaziwa kakhulu kwindalo iphela kukulahleka komthamo wamanzi kwi Ulwandle lweAral. Lulwandle olulahlekelwe yi-90% yawo onke amanzi kule minyaka ingama-50 idlulileyo. Eyona nto ibuhlungu kukuba olu lwandle lwaba lilizwe lesine ngobukhulu emhlabeni kwaye lincitshiswe laphantse langabikho nto.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga noLwandle lweAral kwaye zeziphi izizathu zokulahleka kwayo kwamanzi.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ulwandle olomileyo olomileyo

Nangona yaziwa ngegama loLwandle lweAral, lichibi elisemaphandleni elingadibananga nolwandle okanye ulwandle. Ime kwintshona yeKyzyl Kum entlango phakathi kweUzbekistan yanamhlanje neKazakhstan. Ingxaki kukuba ibekwe kwindawo eneendawo ezininzi ezomileyo kuMbindi weAsia apho amaqondo obushushu ehlotyeni ephezulu kakhulu. La maqondo obushushu ahlala ejikeleze ama-40 degrees celcius.

Kuba umphezulu wamanzi kunye nomthamo ogcwele olu lwandle uguquguquka minyaka le, ukubala isixa ekuso kuthe kratya. Ngo-1960 yayinendawo engama-68.000 eekhilomitha zeekhilomitha ngelixa ngo-2005 yayinendawo engama-3.500 yeekhilomitha eziqhelekileyo. Nangona kuyo yonke isitya sayo sehydrographic ifikelela kwizigidi ezili-1.76 zeekhilomitha kwaye ihlala kwindawo enkulu kuyo yonke i-Asia esembindini.

Kude kube ngawo-1960 lonke uLwandle lweAral lwalusondliwa kakhulu yimilambo eyahlukeneyo. Le milambo yayiyiAmu Daria kwicandelo elisemazantsi kunye noMhlekazi uDaria kumantla mpuma. Umahluko ophambili phakathi kweminyaka engama-50 eyadlulayo kwaye ngoku kukuba ukukhutshwa kwamanzi amatsha kuncinci. Ngokubonelela ngamanzi amancinci, ityuwa yolwandle kufuneka inyuke. Ityuwa yolwandle ihlala i malunga ne-33 yeelitha kwilitha nganye, amanzi oLwandle lwaseAral afikelela ngaphezulu kwe-110 yeelitha kwilitha nganye.

Ukuyilwa kunye nokuhlukahluka koLwandle iAral

Olu lwandle lwenziwa ngenxa yoxinzelelo olukhulu ngexesha le Ixesha likaNeogene de la Ixesha leCenozoic. Ngelo xesha lonke ilizwekazi laseIndiya laliphakathi kwengozi kunye neAsia. Le nkqubo yokungqubana yanciphisa umphezulu wolwandle iParatetis, ekugqibeleni yalucima.. Ukongeza, yabangela ukusongwa komhlaba okwadala ukuba iiNtaba zeCaucasus kunye neeNtaba ze-Elburz zivele. Uxinzelelo olwenziwe lwaqala ukugcwalisa amanzi okoko imithombo ethile efana noMlambo iSil Daria uvela.

Iminyaka emva kokudalwa kwayo, uLwandle lweAral lomile ubukhulu becala de Ipleistocene kunye Holocene, ndabuya ndizogcwaliswa.

Ngokubhekisele kwiyantlukwano yendalo, ibinqongophele iminyaka emininzi. Njengokuba ulwandle lumile, iintlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana ezihlala kulo mlambo ziye zancipha. Ngaphaya koko, hayi kuphela ngenxa yokulahleka komthamo wamanzi sisiphumo sobukho obuphantsi bezinto eziphilayo, kodwa kunye netyuwa ephezulu yamanzi.

Kumaxesha amandulo, imilambo i-deltas yayichumile kwaye kwakukho iintlobo ezininzi zezilwanyana kunye nezityalo ezihlala kwiimeko ezilungileyo. Olu lwandle lwalunendawo yokuhlala kunye neentlanzi, kunye nezinye izidalwa. Iintlanzi ezazibalasele kakhulu zii-sturgeon, i-Aral barbel, i-carp kunye ne-rutile. Ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi kwaqikelelwa ukuba zazili-100 iintlobo zeentlanzi, ezingama-200 zeentlobo zezilwanyana ezanyisayo kunye neentlobo ezingama-500 zeentaka. Namhlanje, iimpembelelo zeentlobo ezithile zeentlanzi ezisalondoloziweyo, uninzi lwazo luye lwanyamalala.

Isongelo soLwandle lweAral

Ulwandle lweAral

Ingxaki yomphunga wamanzi olu lwandle luxanduva lwezenzo zabantu. Ngo-1960, iSoviet Union yenza isicwangciso sokuguqula onke amathafa ayinkqantosi aloo mmandla waseAsia abe ngummandla onamandla amakhulu okuvelisa umqhaphu. Umqhaphu ufuna amanzi amaninzi, kungoko ke baphambukisa amanzi emilanjeni ukuze bakwazi ukunkcenkceshela izityalo. Ukwenza oku, izinto ezahlukeneyo zenziwe ezenza ukuba umthamo wamanzi angene kuLwandle lweAral unciphe nangaphantsi.

Kwakunokwenzeka ukuvelisa inzuzo enkulu ngomzi-mveliso womqhaphu, kodwa oku ngexabiso eliphezulu kuLwandle lweAral. Umthamo wamanzi olwandle wawuncipha ngesantya esikhawulezayo. Oku kubangele ukuba ibhedi iqale ukubonakala kwezinye iindawo zolwandle, ijika iziqithi zibe ziipeninsula okanye inxenye yomhlaba oqhubekayo. Ityuwa yolwandle inyuke ngakumbi nangakumbi njengoko umthamo wamanzi uyehla. Ukuncitshiswa komthamo wamanzi akuchaphazelanga kuphela uLwandle lweAral, kodwa kukonyusa nongcoliseko kunye nosawoti.

Lonke olu tshintsho kwiimeko zokusingqongileyo lubangele iingxaki ezinkulu kwizimo zezilwanyana nezilwanyana. Le yindlela iintlanzi ezaqala ngayo ukunyamalala kuba zazingakwazi ukunyamezela le miqathango mitsha. Amashishini okuloba nolwandle anciphile kwaye abantu abaninzi abaxhomekeke elwandle kuye kwafuneka barhoxe.

Kamva, kwi 90s, Vozrozhdenya Island wayesele usingasiqithi. Le peninsula yaba yinkxalabo, njengoko yayisetyenziselwa ukuvavanywa kwezixhobo zebhayiloji ngexesha loMlo obandayo. Ukugxininiswa okukhulu kwe-anthrax spores kwabhalwa kwezi ndawo. Sele kuqale unyaka ka-2000 xa yonke indawo yacocwa ngokugqithisileyo ukuze ikhululeke kungcoliseko lweentsholongwane eziyingozi ebantwini.

Ummandla wonke woLwandle lweAral uchaphazeleka kakhulu kwaye iyingozi kwimpilo yabantu. Nangona ukucocwa kwenziwa ngendlela egqithileyo, ibisekhona nanamhlanje, uthuli oluphakanyiswa ngumoya lunesixa esikhulu sezinto ezinetyhefu ezinokubangela izifo ezithile eziyingozi. Kule micimbi yothuli kukho amasuntswana ezichumisi kunye neyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi.

Nangona kwenziwe iinzame ezininzi zokuhlangula olu lwandle, kunzima kakhulu ukuba amanzi athathe indawo yawo. Kwi-2005, i-Kazakhstan yakha idama elisebenza ukwahlula amanzi asentla kunye nendawo esemazantsi. Le dike ibangele ukonyuka okuncinci kumthamo wolwandle kude kube namhla kwingxenye esemantla.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga noLwandle lweAral.


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