UJames Hutton

UJames Hutton

Ku-geology kukhona ososayensi abashintshe indlela esibona ngayo umhlaba kanye neplanethi yethu. Omunye walabo sosayensi abaguqula indlela abantu abacabanga ngayo ngeplanethi yoMhlaba UJames Hutton. Kwakuyi-geologist eyasinika umqondo wesikhathi esijulile. Wayengumuntu othanda iwhisky, abesifazane, futhi eza nemibono emisha ayezoxoxa ngayo nontanga yakhe. Yize eyisidanga sobudokotela, wayenentshisekelo enkulu ekwakhiweni koMhlaba nezwe lemvelo. Futhi, njengoba sesibonile ngaphambili kuyo yonke isayensi nentuthuko yayo, okutholwa okukhulu kunakho konke kwenziwa ngokufuna okunye okungazange kube yilokho okutholakele, noma ngabantu ababengebona ochwepheshe kuleso sihloko.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela nge-biography kanye nokuxhashazwa kukaJames Hutton kanye negalelo lakhe elikhulu kusayensi kanye nokwakheka komhlaba.

Ibhayibheli nokwakheka komhlaba

Ukubhujiswa nokwakheka koqweqwe

Kufanele ucabange ukuthi ezikhathini zasendulo zazingekho izinto eziningi kangaka zobuchwepheshe ezazikwazi ukuphenya iplanethi yethu. Ngaleso sikhathi, okuwukuphela kombhalo wokwakheka komhlaba kwakuyiBhayibheli. Ngalezo zikhathi kwakukholakala ukuthi bazi ngisho nosuku oluqondile uNkulunkulu adala ngalo uMhlaba, ngo-Okthoba 22, 4004 BC.

Yize uJames Hutton ayekholelwa kuNkulunkulu, wayengazinikele ekuchazelweni iBhayibheli ngokoqobo. Wayekholelwa ukuthi uNkulunkulu wadala umhlaba kodwa enohlelo lwemithetho yemvelo.

Unkosikazi wakhe wakhulelwa base bemhambisa eLondon beyobeletha. Lapho eneminyaka engama-26 ubudala, uHutton waphoqeleka ukuba enze impilo entsha epulazini lomndeni eningizimu yeScotland. Kukulelo pulazi lapho imibono yakhe ngeplanethi yathola amandla nokubaluleka empilweni yakhe. Njengoba umhlaba wakulelo pulazi wawunomoya, imvula, futhi nesimo sezulu esibi, kwakudingeka aguqule ipulazi libe yinto engenzuzo ephansi. Uphoqeleke ukuthi embe futhi ahlanze imisele ehlukene yokuhambisa amanzi njalo ukuze ikwazi ukusimama.

Njengoba imisele yathatha inhlabathi eyayisetshenziselwa ukulima, ukuguguleka kwenhlabathi kwakwanda kuphela. Ngakho-ke, uJames Hutton waqala ukukhathazeka ngokuguguleka okunjalo kwenhlabathi futhi waqala ukucabanga ukuthi uma ukuguguleka komhlaba kuqhubeka kanjena isikhathi eside, bekungeke kube khona umhlaba wokulima eminyakeni edlule. Lokhu kumholele ekucabangeni ukuthi uNkulunkulu udale umhlaba onomkhuba wokungabi nalutho ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Kwakungenangqondo. Ngokusho kwakhe, UNkulunkulu kwakufanele adale iplanethi ekwaziyo ukuzihlaziya kabusha.

Uhlelo Lomhlaba Omkhulu

Ukutholwa kukaJames Hutton

Ebhekene nesidingo sokuthi uMhlaba ukwazi ukuzivuselela futhi ungalahlwa ngokufa kwabantu ababulawa yindlala, waqala wafunda ukuthi uvuseleleke kanjani. Ukuguguleka kwenhlabathi okufana umenzeli womhlaba bekungukuhlukahluka kokubhujiswa, manje bekufanele acabangele lokho abakwakhayo.

Okuhlukile izinhlobo zamadwala eyayifundwe nguHutton futhi yaqonda ukuthi kunjalo inzika ihlala ithwalwa ngamanzi nokuthi, unyaka nonyaka, ngendlela ehamba kancane, zahlanganiswa zakha idwala. Ngezifundo nokuhamba kwesikhathi, waqonda ukuthi uMhlaba ubusezingeni phakathi kokubhujiswa nokwakhiwa nokuthi lokhu akuxhomekile ezenzakalweni ezinkulu futhi ezingazelelwe njengoba iBhayibheli lakuqinisekisa, kepha kunalokho kube yimiphumela yeminyaka. Okusho ukuthi, uMhlaba wakhiwa ngemfucumfucu kusukela esikhathini esedlule.

Ukudingiswa kwakhe kwaphela eneminyaka engama-41, ngakho wakwazi ukubuyela edolobheni lobusha bakhe. Ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyinkathi yokukhanyiselwa kweScotland. I-Edinburgh kwakuyindawo yezemfundo enhle kakhulu, futhi iHutton yayisebenzisa ngokugcwele. Uphenye futhi wazi ukuthi akuwona wonke amadwala anezingqimba zenzika, kunalokho, izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamatshe nazo zazinezimo ezahlukahlukene zokwakheka.

Kwakungenxa yokubonga kumngane wakhe, uJames Watt, ukuthi wakwazi ukufunda okwengeziwe. Le ndoda yayingumsunguli wezinjini ezisebenza ngomphunga futhi yenza i-Industrial Revolution yaphumelela kakhulu. Ngakho-ke uHutton wayezibuza ukuthi ipani lishisa ngaluphi ukushisa. Yile ndlela-ke waba ngowokuqala ukucabanga ukuthi isikhungo seMhlaba sasiyindawo eshisayo neyomlilo. Izintaba-mlilo zazimane ziyiziphepho ezivela kulokho kushona okukhulu okukhulu.

Isikhathi seqiniso

Amafolda asemhlabeni

Konke lokhu kwamholela ekucabangeni ukuthi ezinye izinhlobo zamatshe zazenziwe kulesi sithando esikhulu sangaphakathi esanikeza ukwakheka kwazo lapho sezipholile ngaphezulu. Ngakho konke lokhu, weza ukuzobeka izindlela ezimbili zokwakha umhlaba:

  • Kusuka ezenzweni ezihlanganiswe yizinto ezifana nemvula, umoya, ezokuthutha, ukuguguleka komhlaba. Kwaveza amadwala ase-sedimentary.
  • Embindini womhlaba, ngokushisa okukhulu, kwakhiwa amatshe avela odakeni olubunjiwe. Lokhu kwakha amadwala angenalutho.

Ukuba umbono wezinguquko, abangane bakaJames Hutton bamncenga ukuthi aphumele obala. Ngo-1785, wayishicilela eRoyal Academy e-Edinburgh. Ukuba novalo kakhulu nokungabi yisikhulumi esihle, Umbono wakhe wenqatshwa kwathiwa akakholelwa kuNkulunkulu.

Lokhu akuzange kumvimbe ophenyweni lwakhe. UHutton uqhubeke nokuphenya yonke imvelo yaseScotland futhi wathola ukuthi i-granite yayikade iphonswe phambilini. Le ndlela wafakazela ngayo ukuthi kwakukhona injini enkulu eshisayo ngaphakathi kweplanethi. Konke lokhu obekubhekiwe bekungukuthi ubufakazi bokuthi uMhlaba unohlelo olukhulu lokucekela phansi nokwakha.

Ngisho nalokhu, wayenganelisekile futhi wayefuna ukuthola ukuthi ngabe uMhlaba wawuneminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezimbalwa nje ubudala njengoba iBhayibheli lasho noma wawudala kakhulu. Wayebone izingqimba eziqondile ngasogwini lolwandle, kodwa wayazi ukuthi kamuva i-engeli lashintsha. Yize bengingazi ukuthi i- ipuleti tectonics theory angakuqonda lokho kwakungukuzalwa nokufa komhlaba wonke. Wazwisisa ukuthi uMhlaba wadala futhi wabhubhisa uqweqwe nokuthi umjikelezo uqhubeke kanjani.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, uJames Hutton wenza amagalelo amaningi kwezesayensi, yize yayingamukelwa kabanzi inkolo. Nakulokhu siyabona ukuthi inkolo isebenze kuphela ukuvimba ukuthuthuka kwezesayensi.


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