Izinhlobo zamadwala, ukwakheka nezici

Izinhlobo zamadwala

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngesihloko se-geology. Ingabe mayelana izinhlobo zamatshe akhona. Selokhu kwakhiwa iplanethi yethu yomhlaba, izigidi zamatshe namaminerali sekwakhiwe. Ngokuya ngemvelaphi yabo nohlobo lwabo lokuqeqeshwa, kunezinhlobo eziningana. Onke amadwala emhlabeni angahlukaniswa ngamaqembu amakhulu amathathu: amadwala ane-igneous, amadwala we-sedimentary namadwala we-metamorphic.

Uma udinga ukwazi zonke izinhlobo zamatshe akhona, izimo zokwakheka kwawo nezici zawo, lokhu okuthunyelwe kwakho 🙂

Amatshe aseSedimentary

Amadwala aseSedimentary nokwakheka kwawo

Sizoqala ngokuchaza amatshe asezintabeni. Ukwakheka kwayo kungenxa yokuthuthwa nokufakwa kwezinto ngenxa ye- isenzo somoya, amanzi neqhwa. Bakwazile nokufakwa kumakhemikhali kusuka kolunye uketshezi olunamandla. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, lezi zinto ziyahlangana zenze idwala. Ngakho-ke, amadwala ase-sedimentary akhiwe ngezinto eziningi.

Ngokulandelayo, amadwala asezintabeni ahlukaniswe abe yingozi futhi angabi yingozi

Amatshe edrital sedimentary

Amatshe edrital sedimentary

Lezi yilezo ezakhiwa ngokudilika kwezingcezwana zamanye amadwala ngemuva kokuthuthwa phambilini. Ngokuya ngosayizi wezingcezu zamatshe, zikhonjwa ngandlela thile. Uma kushiwo izingcezu zinkulu kuno-2 mm  futhi oyindilinga abizwa ngokuthi ama-conglomerate. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma zingama-angular zibizwa ngokuthi izikhala.

Uma izingcezu ezakha idwala zingakhululeki, zibizwa ngokuthi i-gravel. Cishe uke wezwa ngogravel. Nini mancane kuno-2mm futhi makhulu kuno-0,6mmokungukuthi, ngeso lenyama noma nge-microscope ebonakalayo babizwa ngamatshe esanti. Lapho izingcezu ezakha idwala zincane kakhulu kangangokuba sidinga imicroscope ye-electron, zibizwa ngosilika nodaka.

Njengamanje, i-gravel isetshenziselwa ukuhlanganiswa ekwakhiweni nasekwakhiweni kokhonkolo. Ama-conglomerate nama-sandstones asetshenziselwa ukuqina kwawo ekwakhiweni. Ubumba busetshenziswa ezimpilweni zethu zansuku zonke nasekusetshenzisweni kwezokwelapha nezimonyo. Zibuye zisetshenziselwe ukwakhiwa kwezitini nobumba. Izakhiwo zabo zokuvimbela amanzi zibenza balungele ukuncela imikhiqizo engcolisayo nokuhlunga embonini. Zisetshenziswa njengezinto zokwakha udaka nezindonga ze-adobe nokwenziwa kwezingcezu zobumba bendabuko, ubumba nobumba.

Ama-sedimentary e-non-detrital

I-rock dolomite yedwala elingacekeli phansi

Lezi zinhlobo zamatshe zakhiwa yi imvula yamakhemikhali athile ngezixazululo ezinamanzi. Ezinye izinto zemvelaphi engokwemvelo zinganqwabelana zenze lamatshe. Elinye lamatshe ajwayelekile futhi aziwa kakhulu kulolu hlobo i-limestone. Kwakhiwa ngemvula ye-calcium carbonate noma ukunqwabelana kwezingcezu zamathambo zamakhorali, ama-ostracods nama-gastropods.

Kujwayelekile kakhulu ukubona izingcezu zemivubukulo kulolu hlobo lwamatshe. Isibonelo sedwala le-limestone likhalali. Kuyidwala elinomhlwenga kakhulu elinensalela yezitshalo eziningi futhi elivela emifuleni lapho i-calcium carbonate icwila ezimileni.

Esinye isibonelo esivame kakhulu ama-dolomites. Zihlukile kwezedlule ngoba inokwakhiwa kwamakhemikhali anokuqukethwe okuphezulu kwe-magnesium. Lapho ukuqoqana kwamagobolondo ezinto ezenziwe nge-silica kwenzeka, kwakheka amadwala e-flint.

Kukhona nohlobo lwedwala ngaphakathi kokungonakalisi izingcingo ze-evaporitic. Lokhu kwakhiwa ngokuhwamuka kwamanzi ezindaweni zasolwandle kanye nasezixhaphozini noma emachibini. Idwala elibaluleke kakhulu kuleli qembu yi-gypsum. Zakhiwa ngemvula ye-calcium sulfate.

I-limestone isetshenziswa ekwakheni usimende nelime ekwakheni. Ziyizinto zokwakha ezisetshenziselwa ukwakheka kwezingubo ezingaphansi kanye nesembozo saphansi sezakhiwo. Amalahle no-oyela uhlobo lwedwala le-sedimentary elingeyona ingozi izingcingo ze-organogenic. Igama layo kungenxa yokuthi livela ekuqongeleleni izinto eziphilayo nezinsalela zalo. Ngenkathi amalahle evela kudoti wezitshalo, uwoyela ophuma emaplankton asolwandle. Zinesithakazelo esikhulu kwezomnotho ngenxa yenani lazo eliphakeme lekhalori lokukhiqiza amandla ngomlilo.

Amatshe agneous

Amatshe agneous

Lolu wuhlobo lwesibili lwedwala. Akhiqizwa ukupholisa kwe- isisindo samanzi sokwakheka kwe-silicate eza ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. Isisindo esincibilikisiwe sisezingeni lokushisa eliphakeme ngokwedlulele futhi siyaqina lapho sifinyelela ebusweni bomhlaba. Kuya ngokuthi apholisa kuphi, azokhuphula izinhlobo ezimbili zamatshe.

Amatshe kaPlutonic

Igneous rock igwadle

Lokhu kuvela lapho ubukhulu besiketshezi buphola ngaphansi komhlaba. Lokho wukuthi, ngaphansi kwengcindezi ephansi, amaminerali angaphakathi akhula ndawonye. Lokhu kubangela ukuba kwakheke amatshe aminyene, angenayo iminyango. Ukupholisa kobuningi beketshezi kuhamba kancane, ngakho amakristalu angaba makhulu kakhulu.

Elinye lamatshe adume kakhulu alolu hlobo yi igwadle. Akhiwe ngengxube yamaminerali e-quartz, feldspars kanye ne-mica.

Amatshe entaba-mlilo

I-Basalt

Lolu hlobo lwakhiwa lapho isisindo samanzi sikhuphukela ngaphandle komhlaba sipholile lapho. Lawa ngamadwala akhiwa lapho udaka lwentaba-mlilo lupholile lwehlisa amazinga okushisa nezingcindezi. Amakristalu kulawa matshe mancane futhi anodaba olufana nengilazi olungafakwanga.

Enye yezinto ezivame ukubonakala kalula zingama-basalts ne-pumice.

Amatshe we-Metamorphic

Imabula yedwala le-Metamorphic

Lawa matshe akhiqizwa ngamadwala asevele ekhona ngokuqhubeka izinga lokushisa nokucindezela kuyanda ngezinqubo zokwakheka komhlaba. Ukulungiswa kabusha kwalezi zinhlobo zamatshe kuzenza zishintshe ukwakheka kwazo kanye namaminerali. Le nqubo ye-metamorphic yenzeka esimweni esiqinile. Idwala akudingeki lincibilikiswe.

Amatshe amaningi we-metamorphic abonakala ngokuchotshozwa okujwayelekile kwamaminerali awo okwenza idwala libe isicaba futhi laminishwe. Lo mphumela ubizwa ngokuthi yi-foliation.

Amadwala aziwa kakhulu yi-slate, imabula, i-quartzite, i-gneiss, nama-schists.

Usuvele uzazi kangcono izinhlobo zamatshe akhona nezinqubo zawo zokwakheka. Manje sekuyisikhathi sakho sokuya ensimini futhi uqaphele ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo zamatshe ozibonayo bese uthatha inqubo yokwakheka nokwakheka kwawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UJose Joaquin Adarmes Hernandez kusho

    Lolu cwaningo luthakazelisa kakhulu, ngiseSan Sebastian de los Reyes wase-Aragua State, eVenezuela futhi kunamagquma abalulekile e-limestone namanye amaminerali ohlelweni lwemihume kanye nama-chasms wobuhle obukhulu ngoba ngithanda ukuphenya kakhulu ngezimpawu nezinhlobo amaminerali akhona kule mihume emihle.