UCharles Messier

Ikhathalogi yeMessier

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngesazi sezinkanyezi esasibaluleke kakhulu emlandweni. Ingabe mayelana UCharles Messier. Wayengoweshumi ezinganeni eziyi-12 umshado kaNicolás Messier noFrancoise B. Grandblaise ababenawo. Uyise wayeyisikhulu samaphoyisa eSalm. Lokhu kwenza umndeni, yize ubumningi, wakwazi ukuphila ngokunethezeka. Yile ndlela uCharles Messier azinikele ngayo kwisayensi yezinkanyezi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela i-biography kaCharles Messier ukuze ukwazi ukuthola ukuthi yiziphi iziphathamandla zakhe zomhlaba wesayensi.

Ukuqala

Izinqolobane zikaCharles messier

Ezinganeni zakubo eziyi-12, eziyisithupha zazo zashona ngaphambi kwesikhathi. Ngesikhathi eneminyaka engu-6 nje kuphela, ubaba kaCharles washona futhi waba yintandane. Umfowabo omdala, oneminyaka engu-11 ogama lakhe linguJacinto, uthathe indima yokuba yinhloko yomndeni futhi wanakekela futhi wabheka imfundo yomfowabo uCharles. Ekuqaleni, uJacinto wayefuna ukuthi umfowabo omncane afane naye. Inhloso bekuwukuthi asebenze enkantolo yothishanhloko.

Nokho, UCharles uthole ikhono elikhulu lokudweba nokubuka. Lokhu kwamvumela ukuthi athole umsebenzi ngo-1751 njengesazi sezinkanyezi embuthweni wasolwandle waseFrance. Kulo msebenzi akagcinanga ngokudweba amabalazwe esibhakabhaka, kodwa futhi wenza namamephu ezindawo. Lawa mabalazwe ayenemba kakhulu ngesikhathi ayekuso, okwakwenza abaphathi babo bajabule kakhulu. Owesifazane ogama lakhe linguDelisle wayeneminyaka engama-60 futhi wayengenazo izingane. Ngalesi sizathu, wamukela uMessier emzini wakhe eRoyal College yaseFrance.

Wayesebenza embhoshongweni wokubuka weRoyal Navy, lapho ayenehhovisi lakhe khona. Umsebenzi wokuqala omkhulu awenza kwakungukwenza ibalazwe elikhulu laseChina. Zicabange ungenalo uhlobo lwesathelayithi noma indiza noma yini engandiza ngaphezulu ukuze ubone kangcono ukuthi kuyini ukwenza imephu ephelele. Kamuva, wenza eminye imidwebo yokuhamba kweMercury futhi waqala nokwenza izibalo nezilinganiso zezindawo eziqondile zezinkanyezi ze Uhlelo lomkhathi.

Lokhu kwakungukuqala kukaCharles Messier kusayensi yezinkanyezi. Amakhono akhe okuphatha amadivayisi wezinkanyezi nokubona kwakhe okuhle kwamenza waba ngumbukeli omkhulu.

Ukuxhashazwa kukaCharles Messier

UCharles Messier

Ngaleso sikhathi bekulindeleke ukuthi i- I-Halley comet, kumenyezelwe yiwona kanye U-Edmund halley. Ukuzungeza kwawo bekufanele kudlule futhi eMhlabeni futhi futhi kungabonakala. Ukuseshwa kwale comet kwaba ngenye yezinto eziseqhulwini zalesi sazi sezinkanyezi. Wazinikezela ngokuphelele kuwo futhi wathola izinkanyezi ezinomsila ezintsha ezingama-20 empilweni yakhe yonke. Okokuqala kunakho konke kwaba ngo-1758.

UMessier kanye noDelisle bathola inkanyezi enomsila ngalowo nyaka. Kamuva, ngenkathi belandelela umlaza weTaurusm babona ukuthi kukhona into eyindida ebukeka njengenkanyezi enomsila. Kungaleso sikhathi-ke lapho kwathatha khona okunye ukubona ukuthi lokho abakutholile kwakuyi- i-nebula.

Eminyakeni eyalandela waphinde wathola izinkanyezi ezinomsila ezintsha ezimbili zabizwa ngo-1763 Messier no-1764 Messier, ngenhloso yokuhlonipha otholayo nosuku. Ngaphansi kwemiyalo eqondile kaDelisle, wakwazi ukudweba ibalazwe elibonisa indlela yeHalley's Comet ngo-1682. Umphathi wakhe akazange abale kahle futhi wachitha izinyanga eziyi-18 efuna uHalley's Comet ngaphandle kwempumelelo. Okungenani lokhu kumsizile ukuthi athole enye inkanyezi enomsila entsha.

Ekugcineni, uCharles Messier ukwazile ukuthola iHalley's Comet ngoJanuwari 21, 1759. Kwabonakala endaweni yesibhakabhaka ehlukile kunezibalo ezinikezwe nguDelisle. Akazange avumele isigceme sakhe ukuthi sixhumane ngalokhu okutholakele ukuze singabi nokufaneleka. Ngo-1765 uDelisle uthathe umhlalaphansi, ngenkathi uMessier eqhubeka nomsebenzi wakhe wokubuka isibhakabhaka efuna izinkanyezi ezintsha ezizulazulayo.

Njengoba izinsimbi ayezisebenzisa zazingezekhwalithi empofu kakhulu, wayelokhu ethola izinto eziyindida azithatha njengezinkanyezi ezinomsila. Ukuze angaphinde abadideke, wayihlukanisa ngamanani futhi waphawula ukuma kwayo ngencazelo emfushane. Ngale ndlela, lapho ethola okuthile okusha, wayengabukeza imininingwane echaziwe ukuze abone ukuthi ngabe bekuvele kuyinto ayenayo ngaphambili noma cha.

Into yayo yokuqala etholwe kumlaza i-Taurus ibizwa nge-M1.

Okutholwe okubaluleke kakhulu

Ukubona kweNebula

Udumo lwasakazeka ngaphandle kweFrance ngo-1768. Ngenxa yalokhu wangeniswa eRoyal Society yaseLondon. Kamuva iNkosi yasePrussia yanikeza isikhathi sokuqokwa eBerlin Academy sibonga ibalazwe lomzila wenkanyezi enomsila ayenzile nayizitholela yona uqobo. Wabuye waqokwa njengelungu leSweden Academy eStockholm.

Washada noMarie-Françoise de Vermauchampt oneminyaka engama-40 eneminyaka engama-37. Ngeshwa, impilo yakhe yangasese yaqala ukuhlupheka kusukela ekuzalweni kwendodana yakhe, ngoba umkakhe wafa nengane esanda kuzalwa. NgoNovemba 1781 wehlelwa yingozi enkulu lapho ewela emfantwini weqhwa. Lokhu kuwa kubangele ukuphuka emlenzeni nasengalweni, kanye nezimbambo eziningana eziphukile. Kwamshiya cishe unyaka wonke engakwazi ukwenza umbono wakhe. Kamuva waqala ukutadisha ukuhamba kweMercury ngaphambi kwediski yelanga.

Ekugcineni, Ngo-1784, washicilela uhlelo lwakhe lwesine nolokugcina lwekhathalogu iMessier enezinto eziyi-109 ezibonwayo. Uthole nokuqokwa eDublin Academy of Sciences (1784), e-Academy of Stanislav, Nancy, Lorena (1785), nase-Academy of Vergara, Spain (1788).

Kakade ngo-1801 wayeyingxenye yephrojekthi yokugcina lapho athola khona inkanyezi enomsila yakhe yokugcina eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Pons comet. Ngenxa yobudala bakhe, wayesevele ebonile okumbalwa futhi washona ngo-1815 we-infarction ye-cerebral. Akakwazanga ukululama njengoba kumshiye ekhubazekile kancane futhi Wadlula emhlabeni kwakhe eParis eneminyaka engama-87.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, uCharles Messier wenze amagalelo amaningi kwizinkanyezi futhi uzohlala ekhunjulwa. Ngiyethemba lolu lwazi luzokusiza ukuthi ufunde kabanzi ngalo sosayensi nazo zonke izimangaliso azenzile. Kuze kube namuhla, kusakhulunywa ngezingqungquthela eziningi zezinkanyezi.


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