Isikhathi seCarboniferous

I-Carboniferous

I-Paleozoic ihlukaniswe ngezikhathi eziningana ezithatha izigidi zeminyaka. Esinye salezi zinkathi yi- i-carboniferous. Kungumkhakha wesikhathi sokuma komhlaba oqala cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-359 edlule futhi waphela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-299 edlule, okwenza kube nesikhathi I-Permian.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, i-geology, isimo sezulu, izimbali nezilwane zeCarboniferous.

Izici eziyinhloko

Izimbali zeCarboniferous

Sonke lesi sikhathi eNyakatho Melika ihlukaniswe yaba iPennsylvania neMississippi. Kuyo yonke iYurophu kunezigaba eziningana ezifana neWestern Europe ngakolunye uhlangothi neRussia kolunye. Zombili lezi zingxenye kunzima ukuzihlanganisa phakathi kwazo kanye nezaseMelika. Izici eziyinhloko zalesi sikhathi ukuthi kunezindawo ezinkulu zehlathi ezingcwatshwe ngokulandelana ngenxa yokwehla kwezinga lokushisa lomhlaba. Lezi zindimbane ezinkulu ezinezihlahla zokubola ngezinto eziphilayo ezaveza izingqimba ezinkulu zamalahle. Ngakho-ke, le nkathi ibizwa ngeCarboniferous.

Kuyo yonke le nkathi, izinombolo ezinkulu zezinhlobo zakudala zezinhlanzi nazo seziphelile futhi izinhlobo zezinhlayiya namathambo ziye zanda. Ama-Amphibian aqala ukuhlasela izwe futhi izilwane ezihuquzelayo zaqala ukukhula. Lezi zinhlobo zezilwane zinomvuthwandaba wazo ngesikhathi seJurassic. ICarboniferous ihlukaniswe nge-Upper and Lower Carboniferous. Ngesikhathi se-Upper Carboniferous, izinambuzane zazichichima, ezinye zazo zazinkulu, njengofeleba. Ojekamanzi bale nkathi babecishe babe ngamamitha amabili ngosayizi ngamaphiko avulekile, futhi izihlahla zazinde kangangokuba iningi lalingamamitha angama-60 ubude.

Yonke le ndawo yenziwa ngenxa yendawo enomoya omkhulu we-oxygen. Ngokwezibalo nocwaningo maqondana nalesi silinganiso somoya-mpilo singanela emkhathini iphesenti lama-35% lafinyelelwa, kwaba ngu-21% namuhla. ICarboniferous okuyisigaba esisebenzayo emlandweni weplanethi yethu kusukela ekubukeni kwe-tectonic. Sizohlaziya ngokucophelela esigabeni esilandelayo.

I-Carboniferous geology

Isikhathi se-Paleozoic

Ngalesi sikhathi kube nezinguquko ezinkulu ezingeni le-geological, njengemvelaphi ye-orogeny ye-Hercynian. Le orogeny iyona edala ukwakhiwa kwendawo enkulu ebizwa ngePangea. Khumbula ukuthi i-glaciation yaphela lapho izinguzunga zeqhwa zasakazeka khona enkabeni naseningizimu yePangea.

Ekuqaleni kwalesi sikhathi ukwehla komhlaba olwandle okwenzeka ekupheleni kweDevonia kwaguqulwa. Ngalezi zigidi zeminyaka izinga lolwandle lalikhuphuka kancane kancane futhi lidala ulwandle lwe-epicontinental ngendlela ejwayelekile. Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, kube nokwehla okujwayelekile kwamazinga okushisa aseningizimu eningizimu. Wayecabanga ukuthi iGondwana yaseningizimu yayiyinguzunga yeqhwa ngokuphelele sonke lesi sikhathi. Kodwa-ke, zonke lezi zimo zemvelo azibanga nomthelela omkhulu ezindaweni ezishisayo. Kulezi zindawo zeplanethi amahlathi aluhlaza aqala ukwanda emaxhaphozini futhi kancane kancane aphakama ama-degree ambalwa ngasenyakatho kude nezinguzunga zeqhwa laseningizimu.

Ngokuqhubeka ne-geology siyabona ukuthi ingxenye enkulu yeYurophu neNyakatho Melika yayise-Equator. Lokhu kungaziwa ngenxa yediphozi yasendulo yedwala le-limestone elijiyile kakhulu. Isayensi ephethe ucwaningo lwamatshe nenhlangano yawo yesikhashana yi i-stratigraphy. Amatshe eCarboniferous eYurophu naseNyakatho Melika ayenjalo ukulandelana okuqhubekayo kwamatshe e-limestone, ama-animists, ama-shales kanye nokufakwa kwamalahle. Le migqa yokulandelana yayaziwa ngokuthi ama-cyclothems.

Isimo sezulu seCarboniferous

Isimo sezulu sesikhathi seCarboniferous

Ukuze ujulise ulwazi ngalesi sikhathi, sonke isikhathi sihlukaniswa njenge-carboniferous ephansi ne-carboniferous ephezulu. Ngesikhathi iLower Carboniferous ifinyelela umkhawulo wayo kwaba nokwehla komhlaba wonke olwandle ngenxa yokwanda kwezinguzunga zeqhwa iGondwana. Lokhu kubangele ukuhlehla okubalulekile nokupholisa kwesimo sezulu ezingeni lomhlaba jikelele. Lapho izinguzunga zeqhwa zisakazeka, zihlukahlukene izilwandle ezinkulu zase-Continental namachibi amakhulu e-carbon eMississippi.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lokhu kwehla kwamazinga okushisa kwandiswe eningizimu pole kwaveza ukwakheka kwezinguzunga zeqhwa engxenyeni eseningizimu yeGondwana. Ucwaningo alucaci ngokuphelele ukuthi ama-ice sheet aqala ukwakheka ngesikhathi seDevonia noma cha. Kwakukhona nokuqothulwa okukhulu kwazo zonke izimpilo zasolwandle ngenxa yalokhu kwehla kwezinga lolwandle okwathinta ama-crinoids nama-ammonoid, kulahlekelwa phakathi kuka-40% no-80% wayo yonke imikhakha yawo, ngokulandelana.

Manje siqhubekela e-Upper Carboniferous. Ngesikhathi seCarboniferous Gondwana engenhla ixhumana nezwekazi laseRed Sandstones lasendulo elaziwa nangokuthi yi-Euramérica. Lokhu kubangela izigaba ezinkulu ezinkulu zokwakheka kwe-Hercinic orogeny.uku. Ama-gradients abaluleke kakhulu e-latitudinal akhuliswa ngesikhathi se-Upper Carboniferous. Uma i-Iberia, ngaleso sikhathi eyayiseduze nesinye isigxobo, nayo yayinezimbali ezihlukile ezazivumelanisa nezimo ezibandayo.

Izimbali nezilwane

Izilwandle ngesikhathi seCarboniferous

Njengoba sishilo phambilini, izinhlanzi zaqala ukusabalala yize zahlehla ngenxa yokwehla kolwandle. Izilwane ezihuquzelayo zaqala ukwenza umhlaba ube ikoloni. Ukuba khona kwezindandatho eziningi ezimakwe kahle emifuleni yaseGondwana naseSiberia bakhombise ukuthi izimo zibanda impela. EYurophu naseNyakatho Melika lezi zindandatho zokukhula zazingekho. Isimo sezulu esishisayo saphela ngesikhathi i-Upper Carboniferous ishintsha kakhulu.

Ngaphansi kwalezi zimo ama-lycopodiofitos nama-sphenophytes enqabile ngokwanele inani labantu bawo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amaferns abenembewu yilabo abathole indima ebaluleke kakhulu futhi basakazwa kabanzi. Lokhu kubonakala kukhombisa ukuthi bekufanele bavumelane nezimo zezulu ezomile. Amalahle aqhubeka nokwakheka kepha ama-lycopodiophytes ayengasenawo umnikeli oyinhloko.

Ngalesi sikhathi kwakukhona izilwandle ezimbili ezinkulu ezazibusa umhlaba: i-Panthalassa ne-Paleo Tethys.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nesikhathi seCarboniferous, izici zayo, izitshalo nezilwane.

 


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.