Isikhathi sePermian

Ukuqothulwa kwesisindo sePermian

Sibuyela emuva enkathini yePaleozoic esikhathini sayo sokugcina. Imayelana ne- I-Permian. IPermian yisikhathi esibhekwa njengokuhlukaniswa kwalesi silinganiso se- isikhathi sokuma komhlaba. Kwakuyisikhathi esaqala cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-299 edlule futhi saphela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-251 edlule. Njengasezikhathini eziningi zokwakheka komhlaba ezenzekile kule planethi, imicu yilezo ezichaza ukuqala nokuphela kwesikhathi esikhonjwe kahle.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nezenzakalo ze-geological ezenzeka ngesikhathi sePermian.

Izici eziyinhloko

Ubhubhane

Lokhu kwazi ukuthi ukuqala nokuphela kwesikhathi se-geological akumakiwe ngokuphelele. Ngenxa yomucu bangaziwa cishe ukuthi baneminyaka emingaki. Ukuphela kwesikhathi sePermian kuphawulwe ngokuqothulwa okukhulu okwenzeke ngokunembile ngalolu suku. IPermian yandulelwa ngezikhathi ezithile ezifana neCarboniferous futhi ilandelwa yizikhathi ezithile ezifana neTriassic.

Igama lePermian kungenxa yamadiphozithi amakhulu futhi abanzi atholakala esifundeni esizungeze idolobha lasePerm eRussia. Izinqolobane ezitholakele ikakhulukazi zingqimba ezibomvu ezinenzika yezwekazi kanye nokuchayeka kolwandle okungajulile kakhulu.

Sonke lesi sikhathi kube nezinguquko ezinkulu zezulu emhlabeni wonke ngokubaluleka okukhulu. Umkhuba ojwayelekile wawusuka esimweni sezulu esishisayo saya ezimweni ezomile nezomile. Ngakho-ke, kungashiwo ukuthi ukuthambekela kwamazinga okushisa ngalesi sikhathi kuzokwanda. Ngesikhathi sePermian kwakukhona ukusikwa kwamaxhaphozi nayo yonke imizimba yamanzi angaphezulu.

Iningi lezihlahla zamafern kanye nama-amphibian ezazidinga izimo ezinomswakama eziningi zaqala ukuhlehla. Futhi ngukuthi uma izimo zezemvelo zingavumi isikhathi sokuzivumelanisa nezimo ezintsha zemvelo sinzima kakhulu. Amafeni anezimbewu, izilwane ezihuquzelayo, nezilwane ezinwabuzelayo ezincelisayo yizo ezadla ifa loMhlaba.

I-Permian Geology

Ukwakheka kwe-Hercynian orogeny

Izinguzunga zeqhwa ezazivele zikhona ngesikhathi seCarboniferous zase zivele zikhona esifundeni esiseningizimu seGondwana. Ngenxa yokwanda kwamazinga okushisa omhlaba, lezi zinguzunga zeqhwa zehla ngasePermian. Ngalesi sikhathi i-orogeny yeHercynian ingathuthukiswa sibonga izinga eliphezulu lomsebenzi wokuzamazama komhlaba. Njengoba amapuleti ama-tectonic ayehamba ngendlela eshubile, le orogeny yayingakha, okwaholela ekwakhiweni kwezwekazi elikhulu elibizwa ngePangea.

Lapho kuqala le nkathi, iplanethi yethu ibisabhekene nemiphumela yokugcina yeqhwa. Lokhu kusho ukuthi zonke izifunda zasePolar zazimbozwe izingqimba ezinkulu zeqhwa. Izinga lolwandle ngesikhathi sePermian ngokuvamile laliphansi. Ubumbano phakathi kweSiberia neMpumalanga Yurophu lwalukhona kuyo yonke indawo Izintaba zase-Ural  yini ekhiqizile inyunyana ecishe iphelele yezwekazi lonke elibizwa ngePangea.

ENingizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia sithola ukuphela komhlaba omkhulu kuphela owahlukaniswa nokunye futhi ozohlala unjalo phakathi ne- Mesozoic. IPangea yayise-Equator futhi yanweba yaya emapalini ngomphumela ofanayo noma kumagagasi olwandle. Ngalesi sikhathi ngesikhathi se-geological kwakukhona ulwandle olukhulu olwalubizwa ngePathalassa. Lolu lwandle lubhekwa "njengolwandle jikelele." Kwakukhona nolwandle lwasePaleo Tethys, oluphakathi kwe-Asia neGondwana. Izwekazi laseCimmeria lakhiwa lisuselwa ekuhlukaneni phakathi kweGondwna nokukhukhuleka kuya enyakatho. Lokhu kuholele ekuvalweni okuphelele kolwandle iPaleo Tethys. Yile ndlela ulwandle olusha olwalukhula ngayo ekugcineni kwelanga olwaziwa ngokuthi yiTethys Ocean olwaluzobusa kakhulu eMesozoic.

Isimo sezulu sePermian

Izinhlelo zemvelo zasePermian

Ngenxa yokwanda kwamazinga okushisa omhlaba, bekunezindawo ezibanzi zamazwekazi ezakha izimo zezulu ezinokwehluka okumbalwa kakhulu phakathi kokushisa nokubanda. Izindawo ezagqama ngesimo sezulu esibandayo yilezi esizibiza namuhla ukuthi yisimo sezulu sezwekazi. Kulezi zimo zezulu bekunezimo zezimvula ezinemvula yonyaka.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ezindaweni ezinesimo sezulu esigqamile ngokuba namazinga okushisa aphezulu sithola izingwadule ezisakazeke kakhulu. Izimo ezomile zazithanda ukwandiswa nobubanzi ekusatshalalisweni kwama-gymnosperms. Lezi yizitshalo ezinezimbewu ezifakwe kusembozo esivikelayo esinomkhawulo omkhulu wokusinda ezimweni ezomile. Izitshalo ezinjengeTehran ferns zidinga ukusabalalisa izinhlamvu zazo futhi zibe nokuhlehla okuphezulu impela.

Izihlahla okungenzeka zanwetshwa ngesikhathi sezulu sePermian kwakungu-conifers, ama-ginkgo nama-cycads. Izinga lolwandle ngokuvamile lahlala liphansi ngandlela-thile. Lokhu kudale ukuthi imvelo eseduze nogu ikhawulelwe inyunyana cishe yawo wonke amazwekazi amakhulu ezwekazini elilodwa elikhulu.

Lesi sizathu kungenzeka ukuthi sabangela ingxenye yokuqothulwa okubanzi kwezinhlobo zasolwandle ekupheleni kwalesi sikhathi. Imbangela enkulu ukwehliswa okunzima kwezindawo ezisogwini ezinendawo ephansi engaphezulu ebikhethwa kakhulu yizinto eziningi zasolwandle ukuhlala nokuthola ukudla.

Ngenxa yokwakheka kwezintaba ezibalulekile ezifana i-Hercynian eyodwa yanikela ekuthandeni ukuqhathanisa kwesimo sezulu kuyo yonke iplanethi. Kwakhiwe imigoqo eminingi yasendaweni eyenza izintaba ezisanda kwakhiwa zaqhubeka nokukhetha ukukhethwa kwezulu elihlukile. Ngokuqondene nezifunda zePolar, bekuseyizindawo ezibandayo impela kanti nezindawo ezisenkabazwe zifudumele impela.

Fauna

Izilwane ezihuquzelayo zesikhathi se-geologic

Izilwane zasolwandle zazifana ngesikhathi seDevonia neCarboniferous ngaphandle kwamaqembu amaningana ezinto ezafa ekuqothulweni okukhulu. Kube nokuvela okuphezulu kakhulu kwezinambuzane ezibukeka zanamuhla. Imali yasolwandle etholakale ezilwaneni zasePermian icebile ezinsalela zama-brachiopods, ama-echinoderms nama-mollusks.

I-phytoplankton yayiqukethe ama-acritarchs futhi yaqhubeka yize yayingatholakali ngaphambi kokuqothulwa okukhulu kokuphela kwe-Devonia. Okusakaze kakhulu ngama-ammonoid kanye nabamele abakhulu bama-nautiloid bavele. Amaqembu okuqala ezinhlanzi akudala asevele anyamalele, njengama-placoderms nama-ostracoderms, nawo avele.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngePermian.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.