Amaminerali namatshe

Amaminerali namatshe

I-Los amaminerali namatshe Babaluleke kakhulu hhayi i-geology kuphela, kodwa nolwazi lweplanethi. Kubo singakhipha izinsiza zemvelo, izinto zokwakha, ubucwebe, izinsiza zamandla, njll. Ngakho-ke, sizogxila kule ndatshana kumaminerali nasemadwaleni. Sizokhuluma ngokuthi ayini amaminerali nezinhlobo zawo, nokuthi ayini amadwala nokuthi abaluleke kangakanani.

Uma ufuna ukwazi kabanzi ngamaminerali namatshe, lokhu okuthunyelwe kwakho 🙂

Ayini amaminerali

amaminerali

Amaminerali akhiwe ngezinto eziqinile, zemvelo kanye nezinto ezingaphili eziqale ngemagma. Futhi zingakhiwa ngokuguqulwa kwamaminerali asevele akhona futhi akha amanye. I-mineral ngayinye inesakhiwo esithile samakhemikhali esincike ngokuphelele ekwakhiweni kwaso. Futhi inezakhiwo zomzimba ezihlukile kusuka kunqubo yokwakheka kwayo.

Amaminerali ayale ama-athomu. Lawa ma-athomu atholakala enza iseli noma iseli eliyisisekelo eliphindaphindwayo kulo lonke ukwakheka kwangaphakathi. Lezi zakhiwo ziveza ukwakheka okuthile kwejometri okuthi, yize kungabonakali ngaso sonke isikhathi ngeso lenyama, kukhona.

Amaseli amayunithi akha amakristalu ahlangana ndawonye futhi akhe isakhiwo se-lattice noma se-crystal mesh Lawa makristalu akha amaminerali enza kancane kakhulu. Ukuhamba kancane kokwakhiwa kwekristalu, ukuhleleka okuthe xaxa yizo zonke izinhlayiya, ngakho-ke, ngcono inqubo yayo yekristallisation.

Amakristalu akha noma akhule ngokuya ngamazembe noma izindiza zokulinganisa. Izinhlelo ze-crystalline ziqoqa izinhlobo ezingama-32 zokulinganisa i-crystal engaba nazo. Sinezinye eziyinhloko:

  • Okuvamile noma ama-cubic
  • I-Trigonal
  • I-hexagonal
  • I-Rhombic
  • I-Monoclinic
  • I-Triclinic
  • I-Tetragonal

Amakristalu amaminerali awahlukanisiwe, kepha ahlanganiswa. Uma amakristalu amabili noma ngaphezulu ekhula endizeni efanayo noma ku-eksisi yokulinganisa, ikubheka njengesakhiwo samaminerali esibizwa ngewele. Isibonelo sewele yi-crystal quartz yedwala. Uma amaminerali emboza ubuso bedwala, lizobe lakha idrasi noma i-dendrite. Isibonelo, i-pyrolusite.

Ngokuphambene nalokho, uma amaminerali efakwa emgodini wedwala, kwakhiwa izakhiwo ezaziwa ngokuthi ama-geode. La ma-geode athengiswa emhlabeni wonke ngobuhle bawo nokuhlobisa kwawo. I-Olivine yisibonelo esicacile se-geode. Kukhona nama-geode amakhulu njengemayini iPulpi de Almería.

Ukuhlukaniswa kwamaminerali

Ukuhlukaniswa kwamaminerali

Kunemigomo ehlukile yokuhlukanisa amaminerali. Ake siqale ngesokuqala. Ngokuya ngokwakhiwa kwamaminerali, ingahlukaniswa ngendlela elula. Zihlukaniswe zaba:

  • Izinsimbi: Yilezo ezakhiwe nge-magma futhi ziyinsimbi eyinsimbi. Okuyaziwa kakhulu ngethusi nesiliva, i-limonite, i-magnetite, i-pyrite, i-blende, i-malachite, i-azurite noma i-cinnabar, phakathi kwabanye.
  • Okungeyona insimbi. Phakathi kwe-non-metalliferous sinama-silicates, ingxenye yawo enkulu i-silica. Zakhiwa ngama-magma asthenosphere. Angamaminerali afana ne-olivine, eclogic, talc, muscovite, quartz, ortose nobumba. Siphinde sibe nosawoti wamaminerali, owakhiwa ngosawoti ogeleza lapho amanzi olwandle nolwandle ehwamuka. Zingabuye zakhiwe kusukela ekuvuselelweni kabusha kwamanye amaminerali. Amaminerali akhiwa imvula. Isibonelo, sine-calcite, i-halite, i-silvin, i-gypsum, i-magnesite, i-anhydrite, phakathi kwabanye.

Okokugcina, sinamanye amaminerali anezinye izingxenye. Lezi zenziwe nge-magma noma i-recrystallization. Sithola i-fluorite, isibabule, i-graphite, i-aragonite, i-apatite ne-calcite.

Rocks kanye ngezigaba zabo

Ukwakhiwa kwamatshe

Amadwala akhiwe ngokuhlanganiswa kwamaminerali noma imaminerali eyodwa. Ohlotsheni lokuqala sinegranite futhi kukaminerali sinosawoti wedwala njengezibonelo. Ukwakhiwa kwamatshe kuyinqubo ehamba kancane futhi ilandela izinqubo ezihlukile.

Ngokusho umsuka wamatshe, ungahlukaniswa ube yizinhlobo ezintathu: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Lawa madwala awahlali unomphela, kepha ayaqhubeka nokuguquka futhi ayashintsha. Vele yizinguquko ezenzeka kufayela le- isikhathi sokuma komhlaba. Okungukuthi, ngokwesilinganiso somuntu asizukubona ukwakheka kwedwala noma ukuzibhubhisa ngokuphelele, kepha amadwala analokho okwaziwa njengomjikelezo wedwala.

Amatshe agneous

Amatshe agneous yiwo akhiwe kusukela ekupholiseni kwemagma evela ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. Inengxenye ewuketshezi yengubo eyaziwa njenge-Asthenosphere. IMagma ingapholisa ngaphakathi nangamandla omagaba womhlaba. Ngokuya ngokuthi i-magma iphola kuphi, amakristalu azokwakhiwa ngandlela thile nangesivinini esihlukile, okwenza kube nemidwebo ehlukahlukene enjengale:

  • Kuklanyelwe: lapho i-magma iphola kancane futhi amaminerali ahlangana nezinhlamvu ezibonakalayo zosayizi ofana kakhulu.
  • I-Porphyry: Kwenzeka lapho i-magma iphola ngezikhathi ezahlukahlukene. Ekuqaleni iqala ukuphola kancane, kepha ngokushesha okukhulu.
  • I-Vitreous. Kuyaziwa nangokuthi ukuthungwa okunamandla. Kwenzeka lapho i-magma iphola ngokushesha okukhulu. Ngale ndlela, amakristalu awakheki, kepha kubukeka njengengilazi.

Amatshe aseSedimentary

Yilezo ezakhiwa ngezinto ezivela ekugugulekeni kwamanye amadwala. Izinto ezisetshenziswayo ziyathuthwa zifakwe ngaphansi kwemifula noma izilwandle. Lapho zinqwabelana, zidala imicu. Ngezinye izinqubo ezifana i-lithification, ukuminyana, ukumiswa komoya kanye nokuvuselelwa kabusha kwamatshe kwakha la matshe amasha.

Amatshe we-Metamorphic

Yilawo madwala akhiwa ngamanye amadwala. Imvamisa zakhiwa ngamadwala ase-sedimentary abhekane nezinqubo zokuguqulwa komzimba nezamakhemikhali. Ingabe i- ama-geological agents njengokucindezela kanye nokushisa okuguqula idwala. Ngakho-ke, uhlobo lwedwala luxhomeke kumaminerali enawo nezinga lenguquko olwenziwe ngenxa yama-geological agents.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngamaminerali namatshe.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.