Isikhathi seMesozoic: konke odinga ukukwazi

Mesozoic

Ngemuva kokubona konke okuphathelene naye U-Precambrian eon, siqhubekela phambili ngesikhathi sokuvakasha iMesozoic. Ukulandela imihlahlandlela ye- isikhathi sokuma komhlaba, iMesozoic yisikhathi esaziwa ngokuthi iminyaka yama-dinosaurs. Inezikhathi ezintathu ezibizwa ngeTriassic, Jurassic neCretaceous. Ngalesi sikhathi, kwenzeka imicimbi eminingi eplanethi yethu uMhlaba esizobona ngokuningiliziwe kukho konke lokhu okuthunyelwe.

Ngabe ufuna ukwazi konke okwenzekile eMesozoic? Kumele uqhubeke ufunde.

Isingeniso

Isikhathi se-Jurassic

I-Mesozoic yenzeka phakathi cishe Iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-245 futhi yaqhubeka kwaze kwaba yiminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-65 edlule. Le nkathi yagcina isiyonke cishe iminyaka eyizigidi eziyi-180. Phakathi nalesi sikhathi, ama-vertebrate athuthukisa, ahlukahlukene, futhi anqoba zonke izindawo eMhlabeni.

Ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa kwezinzwa ezinhlanu, ukubonakaliswa okusha kokuvela kwendaba kwaqala ukwenziwa. Ngalokhu kuqala ukuvela kwezitho njengesinyathelo esikhulu sokuvela. Ubuchopho yisitho esinikela ngentuthuko enkulu emlandweni.

I-nucleus yamaseli iba yisikhungo sokuxhumanisa nokwamukela lonke ulwazi. Kubhekwa njengobuchopho bamaseli, kepha umuntu uqala ukukhuluma ngobuchopho ezinhlanzini. Ngalesi sikhathi ukuguquka okulandelanayo kwama-amphibians, izilwane ezihuquzelayo, izinyoni nezilwane ezincelisayo kwenzeka lapho ubuchopho buthuthuka futhi buqeqeshelwa ukuphatha inani elikhulu lemininingwane.

Kulesi sikhathi amazwekazi kanye neziqhingi ezazibuthene ePangea ziqala ukuthatha ukubukeka kwazo kwamanje kancane kancane. Ukunyakaza okukhulu kwe-orogenic akwenzeki kanye nesimo sezulu ngokuvamile sizinzile, kuyashisa futhi kunomswakama. Lesi yisizathu esenza ukuthi izidalwa ezihuquzelayo zifinyelele entuthukweni engavamile kuze kube sezingeni lama-dinosaurs. Usayizi walezi zilwane wawumkhulu futhi, ngenxa yobuningi bawo, iMesozoic yaziwa nangokuthi i-Age of Reptiles.

Izilwane ezihuquzelayo kanye nama-dinosaurs

Ukuthuthukiswa kweDinosaur

Ezinye izilwane ezihuquzelayo zafunda ukundiza. Kumele kushiwo ukuthi, njengakuzo zonke izinkathi nezikhathi, kwaba khona ukuphela kwamaqembu amakhulu ezilwane ezifana ama-trilobites, ama-graptolites nezinhlanzi ezihlomile.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izitshalo nezilwane zavuselelwa. AmaGymnosperms avele (izitshalo zemithambo ezakha imbewu kepha zintula izimbali). Lezi zitshalo zashiya amakhokho. Ekupheleni kweNkathi, kwavela izitshalo ezibizwa ngama-angiosperms. Yizitshalo zemithambo eziguquke kakhulu ezine-ovary nembewu eboshwe kuyo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, banezimbali nezithelo.

Lokhu kugxuma okukhulu kokuziphendukela kwemvelo kwaba nomthelela omkhulu empilweni yezilwane, ngoba izitshalo ziwumthombo oyinhloko wokudla nokuziphilisa eziningi zazo. ama-angiosperms nawo ayizinto zokubeka isimo kubantu, ngoba iningi lezitshalo emhlabeni wonke zivela kubo.

Okukhulu ezihuquzelayo noma ezibizwa nangokuthi ama-dinosaurs zazilawula umhlaba nomoya yezigidi zeminyaka. Kwakuyizilwane ezithuthuke kakhulu. Ukuphela kwayo kwafika ekuqothulweni kokugcina kweMesozoic. Ngesikhathi sokuqothulwa okukhulu, amaqembu amakhulu ama-invertebrate anyamalala.

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, inkathi yeMesozoic ihlukaniswe izikhathi ezintathu: i-Triassic, i-Jurassic, ne-Cretaceous. Ake sibone ngamunye wabo ngokuningiliziwe.

Isikhathi se-Triassic

Ukuhlukaniswa kwePangea

Uthathe indawo cishe Iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-245 kuya ku-213. Ngalesi sikhathi kwazalwa ama-ammonoid okuqala. Ama-dinosaurs ayevela futhi ehlukahluka. Cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-230 edlule, izinqe ezihuquzelayo zikwazile ukuzivumelanisa nomjaho oshesha kakhulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-205 eyedlule kwavela ama-pterosaurs okuqala (izilwane ezihuquzelayo ezindizayo).

ITriassic imaka ukuvela kwezilwane ezincelisayo zokuqala zeqiniso nezinyoni zokuqala. Izinyoni zavela kuma-dinosaurs adla kakhulu, alula, ama-bipedal. Ama-dinosaurs akwazi ukuqalisa emoyeni futhi anqoba indawo yomoya. Ngalokhu, izingalo zangaphambili zaguqulwa kancane kancane zaba amaphiko okundiza kanti izindondo ezingemuva zaba mncane futhi zaba lula.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umzimba wakhe wawumbozwe izimpaphe ezivikelayo nezingangenisi manzi kancane kancane waba mncane futhi wakhanya. Umzimba wakhe wonke ujwayele ukundiza isikhathi eside.

Ngokuqondene nomhlaba, izihlahla ezazigcwele kakhulu kwakuhlala ziluhlaza, ikakhulukazi ama-conifers nama-ginkgos. Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ngesikhathi seTriassic, iPangea yahlukana yaba izifunda ezimbili ezinkulu ezibizwa ngeLaurasia neGondwana.

Isikhathi se-Jurassic

I-Jurassic

Isikhathi seJurassic senzeka cishe Iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-213 kuya ku-144. Njengoba kungabonakala kumamuvi, lesi kwakuyisikhathi segolide sama-dinosaurs. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi isimo sezulu siyashisa futhi sinomswakama futhi sithanda ukukhula kwaso. Ukukhula kwezimila ezijabulisayo nokwanda kwazo nakho kwathandwa.

Ngenkathi amazwekazi ehlukana, izilwandle zakhula futhi zahlangana, kuyilapho izindawo ezijulile nezifudumele zamanzi olwandle zisakazeka kulo lonke elaseYurophu nakwamanye amazwe omhlaba. Ekupheleni kweJurassic, lezi zilwandle zaqala ukoma, zishiya amadwala amakhulu e-limestone avela emifuleni yamakhorali kanye nezinambuzane zasolwandle ezingenamgogodla.

Ingxenye yomhlaba yayiphethwe ama-dinosaurs, ngenkathi inani lama-dinosaurs asolwandle lakhula njengama-ichthyosaurs nama-plesiosaurs. Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ama-dinosaurs akwazi ukusakazeka ngazo zontathu izindlela. Izilwane ezincelisayo zahlala zincane sonke lesi sikhathi. Amakhorali akha imifula akhula emanzini angajulile asogwini.

Isikhathi seCretaceous

Ukuqothulwa kweCretaceous

I-Cretaceous yenzeka cishe Iminyaka eyi-145 kuya kwengama-65 million. Yisikhathi esibonisa ukuphela kweMesozoic nokuqala kwe I-Cenozoic. Ngalesi sikhathi kukhona ukuqothulwa okukhulu kwezinto eziphilayo lapho ama-dinosaurs anyamalala khona futhi 75% wabo bonke abangenamgogodla. Ukuvela okusha kuqala ngokuya ngezitshalo eziqhakazayo, izilwane ezincelisayo nezinyoni.

Ososayensi baqagela izimbangela zokuqothulwa. Umbono osabalele kakhulu ngukuthi ekuguqulweni kwesimo sezulu, umoya namandla adonsela phansi okwakwenzeka ngalesi sikhathi, kwanezelwa ukuwa kwe-meteorite enkulu enhlonhlweni yaseYucatan. Le meteorite yashintsha kakhulu izimo zokuphila zomhlaba futhi yabangela ukuqothulwa ngenxa yokuntuleka kokuzivumelanisa nezimo ezintsha. Ngalesi sizathu, ulayini wokuziphendukela kwemvelo woMhlaba wagxila ekuhlukaniseni izinyoni nezilwane ezincelisayo.

Ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeMesozoic.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Mauro neumann kusho

    Kuyathakazelisa kakhulu imininingwane eningiliziwe necacile yenkathi ngayinye nesikhathi, ngiyabonga, ngiyabonga kakhulu!