Izilwane zepliocene

Ukuthuthukiswa kwezilwane zasolwandle

La Isikhathi sePliocene kungukugcina kwe- Isikhathi seNeogene we Isikhathi seCenozoic. Iqale cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-5.5 edlule futhi yaphela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-2.6 edlule. Lesi sikhathi sibe nokubaluleka okukhulu ekwakhiweni kwama-hominid okuqala kanye nezimbali nezilwane zomhlaba wonke. I- Izilwane zepliocene yaqala ukutholakala ezifundeni ezahlukahlukene ezinqunyelwe izimo zezulu zaleso sikhathi. Ezimweni eziningi le ndawo igcinwe kuze kube namuhla.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, ukuhlukahluka kwemvelo nokuvela kwezilwane zasePliocene.

Izinguquko enkathini yePliocene

Isikhathi sePliocene

Lesi yisikhathi lapho sibonga izinsalela zokuqala zemvelo lapho kwenzeka ukwazi ukuthi umuntu wokuqala owayehlala kule planethi, I-Australopithecus, kuhlala izwekazi lase-Afrika. Lesi sikhathi sisho izinguquko ezinkulu ezingeni lezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo, izimbali nezilwane. Izitshalo zaqala ukwehluka ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene ngemikhawulo yezulu. Isikhathi esiphelele sePliocene cishe iminyaka eyizigidi ezintathu.

Inani elikhulu lalezi zinguquko nokwehlukahlukana endaweni yokwabiwa kwezitshalo nezilwane kunemvelaphi yalo ekuguqulweni okujulile nokubalulekile emzimbeni wamanzi emhlabeni. Futhi kungenxa yokuthi izilwandle nezilwandle zaguqulwa ngalesi sikhathi. Kube nokuhlukana phakathi kokuxhumana obekukhona phakathi kwe-Atlantic Ocean nePacific Ocean. Ngenxa yalokhu kuqhekeka, esikwaziyo namuhla njenge-Isthmus yasePanama kwavela. ULwandle iMedithera luphinde lwagcwaliswa ngamanzi aqhamuka e-Atlantic Ocean aqeda le nkinga ebizwa ngo-Messinian salt. Le nkinga isho  ukugxila okuphezulu kasawoti okwakukhona oLwandle iMedithera ngenxa yokuvalwa kweStrait of Gibraltar.

Ngenkathi izinga lokuhwamuka kwamanzi landa futhi lincane, i-saline concentration yanda ngendlela yokuthi yayingakwazi ukuxhasa impilo yezilwane nezitshalo. Ngokwethulwa kwamanzi amasha avela e-Atlantic, amazinga osawoti angancishiselwa endaweni ezinzile.

Ekugcineni, esinye sezehlakalo ezibaluleke kakhulu zokuvela kweNkathi yePliocene kwaba ukuvela kwama-hominids okuqala. I-Australopithecus yayiyi-hominid e-transcendental lapho kuvela khona izinhlobo zabantu. Kwakuyizinhlobo zokuqala zohlobo lweHomo.

Izimbali nezilwane

Izilwane zepliocene

Ngalesi sikhathi izitshalo zanda ngenxa yokwanda kwamazinga okushisa emhlabeni. Izitshalo ezazanda kakhulu kwakuyizindawo ezinotshani. Amazinga okushisa abebusa sonke lesi sikhathi besiphansi kakhulu kusukela lapho izinguzunga zeqhwa zisakazekela ezindaweni ezibanzi. Yize amazinga okushisa aphansi ayekhona kakhulu ezindaweni ezibanzi, kwakukhona nohlaza olushisayo olwalumelwe amahlathi namahlathi. Kodwa-ke, lezi zifunda ezingamahlathi zazilinganiselwe kuphela esifundeni se-equatorial lapho kwakukhona khona izimo zezulu ezingcono.

Kwezinye izindawo ezinamazinga okushisa aphansi, kwakuyizindawo ezinotshani ezazingakha lezi zindawo ngamakholoni. Ngenxa yezinguquko zesimo sezulu ezazikhona ngalesi sikhathi, izindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba owomile zingavela ezaba izingwadule. Ezinye zalezi zingwadule ezinkulu zisadlangile nanamuhla. Ezindaweni eziseduze nezigxobo izimbali zasungulwa futhi zihlala nanamuhla. Lezi zimbali zingama-conifers. AmaConifers yizitshalo ezinamandla amakhulu okumelana namazinga okushisa aphansi futhi zikhula ezindaweni ezimbi kakhulu.

I-biome eyasakazeka kakhulu ngalesi sikhathi kwakuyi-tundra. I-tundra ihlale kanjena kuze kube namuhla selokhu kutholakala izindawo ezisemngceleni nesigxobo esisenyakatho.

Mayelana nezilwane zePliocene, sithola esinye sezinyathelo ezinkulu maqondana nokukhula komuntu. Futhi ukuthi i-hominid yokuqala eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Australopithecus yathuthukiswa. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sibona ukuthuthuka okukhulu nokuhlukahluka kwezilwane ezincelisayo ngenxa yokuziphendukela kwazo okukhulu. Izilwane ezincelisayo zikwazile ukwanda ngenani elikhulu lezindawo futhi zaguqulelwa ezimeni ezahlukahlukene.

Yize amanye amaqembu ezilwane nawo ehlangabezana nezinguquko ezithile ezingeni lezakhi zofuzo nokuziphendukela kwemvelo, kwakuyizilwane ezincelisayo ezavela kakhulu.

Izilwane ezincelisayo Zezilwane ZasePliocene

Izilwane ezincelisayo zaqala ukutholakala ezindaweni ezihlala zizinzile namuhla. Umndeni wasendulo wezilwane ezincelisayo isici sazo esiyinhloko ukuhamba sisekelwa kuzeluleko zeminwe yizi-ungulates. Kwakunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ezazingezeli qembu lezilwane futhi zaqala ukulahlekelwa izitho nomhlaba. Kodwa-ke, kwezinye izifunda bakwazile ukuzivumelanisa nokuthuthuka kabanzi. Sikhuluma ngamakamela namahhashi. Iminwe yalezi zilwane imbozwe izinselo.

Elinye iqembu lezilwane elakhula ngalesi sikhathi kwakungu-proboscideans. Yiqembu lezilwane isici salo esiyinhloko ukwandiswa kobuso bazo. Lesi sandiso sibizwa ngokuthi i-proboscis. Ezilwazini zePliocene kwakukhona izibonelo ezimbalwa zaleli qembu, njengezindlovu kanye nama-stegodon. Kula maqembu amabili ezilwane, izindlovu kuphela ezisindile kuze kube manje.

Phakathi kwezilwane ezincelisayo siphinde sithole namagundane isici sawo esiyinhloko ngamazinyo abo e-incisor athuthukile kakhulu. Lawa mazinyo we-incisor alungele ukugaya ngokhuni noma ezinye izinto nokudla kuwo. Zine ezine futhi ziyahlukahluka ngosayizi. Kuthiwa babaleka ikakhulu bedabula izindawo zezwekazi lase-Europe.

I-Australopithecus Kwakuyi-hominid yokuqala eyayingahamba bipedally. Imayelana nokukwazi ukuhamba ngazo zombili izitho zangemuva. Usayizi wayo wawumncane impela ngoba wawungamamitha angu-1.30 kuphela ubude futhi unokwakhiwa okuncane. Ukudla kwaso kwakudla umunyu futhi kwakwazi ukuchuma ezwenikazi i-Afrika okuyilapho izinsalela eziningi zitholakale namuhla.

Ezinye izilwane

Amanye amaqembu ezilwane nawo athuthuka kahle ngesikhathi sePliocene. Izilwane ezihuquzelayo zazinentuthuko enkulu, ikakhulukazi izingulube nezingwenya. Ngokuqondene nezinyoni, iningi labantu lalihlala ezwenikazi laseMelika futhi lalingabahlaseli bezilwane eziningi. Elinye iqembu lezinyoni elaziwa kangcono njenge ama-anseriformes yilawo akhula kabanzi. Kuleli qembu lezinyoni sithola amadada nama-swans, phakathi kwabanye.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezilwane zasePliocene.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.