I-Pliocene

I-Pliocene

Ngaphakathi I-Cenozoic use Isikhathi seNeogene nokuthi ihlukaniswe ngezikhathi eziningi. Namuhla sizokhuluma ngenkathi yokugcina yalesi sikhathi eyaziwa ngokuthi I-Pliocene. IPliocene yaqala cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezi-5.5 edlule futhi yaphela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-2.6 edlule. Lesi sikhathi singabaluleka impela kusukela ekubukeni kwe-anthropological ngoba ngalesi sikhathi izinsalela zokuqala ezitholakele ze- I-Australopithecus. Le nhlobo i-hominid yokuqala ekhona ezwenikazi lase-Afrika.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngePliocene.

Izici eziyinhloko

i-australopithecus

Le nkathi yaqedwa izinguquko eziphawuleka kakhulu maqondana nokuhlukahluka kwemvelo, ezingeni lezitshalo nezilwane, kanye nakumuntu. Lezi zinguquko zibangelwe ukuthi izilwane nezitshalo zizoqala ukutholakala ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene kakhulu ebezinqunyelwe izimo zezulu. Lezi zindawo ezinhlotsheni eziningi zihlala kuze kube namuhla.

Le nkathi idonse cishe iminyaka eyizigidi ezintathu. Kunezinguquko ezithile ezingeni lolwandle. Kuyo yonke iPliocene kube nezinguquko ezijulile neziphawulekayo emizimbeni yamanzi. Okunye okwaziwa kakhulu ngukuwohloka kokuxhumana okwakukhona phakathi koLwandle i-Atlantic nePacific Ocean. Lokhu kwaba umphumela wokuvela kwe-Isthmus yasePanama. Njengoba sekuvele izinguquko kulezi zilwandle, iMediterranean Sea Basin nayo igcwaliswe ngamanzi aqhamuka e-Atlantic Ocean. Lokhu kwaqeda inkinga ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Messinian salt crisis.

Esinye sezici ezigqame kakhulu zePliocene epoch ukuvela kwe-hominid yokuqala ye-bipedal. Lolu lwazi luyatholakala ngenxa yenani elikhulu lezinsalela eziqoqiwe kusukela kulesi sikhathi. I-hominid yokuqala ukuvela kule planethi yaqanjwa I-Australopithecus. Kwakudlulela ngaphesheya kwemvelaphi yezinhlobo zabantu njengoba sazi kanjalo kusukela ekuqaleni kwezinhlobo zohlobo lweHomo.

I-Pliocene Geology

I-Pliocene Geology

Ngalesi sikhathi kwakungekho msebenzi omkhulu we-orogenic. I- Ukukhukhuleka kwezwekazi Iyaqhubeka nokunyakazisa nokuhambisa amazwekazi ezikhundleni zawo zamanje. Ngalesi sikhathi ukuhamba kwamazwekazi bekuhamba kancane kakhulu phakathi kwezilwandle nezilwandle. Cishe babenesikhundla esifanayo nanamuhla. Babeqhele ngamakhilomitha ambalwa nje.

Esinye sezici ezibaluleke kakhulu ePliocene geology ukwakheka kwesiqeshana sePanama. Lesi sakhiwo yiso esihlanganisa iNyakatho neNingizimu Melika ndawonye. Lesi simo sasingaphezu kwamandla ngoba sasinethonya nakwisimo sezulu seplanethi yonke. Ngalesi siqiwu, konke ukuxhumana okwakukhona phakathi kwezilwandle iPacific kanye ne-Atlantic kwavalwa.

Ezingeni lezigxobo, womabili amanzi ase-Antarctic nase-Arctic athola ukuncipha okukhulu kwamazinga okushisa, kwaba amazinga okushisa abandayo kakhulu emhlabeni. Kunemininingwane eqoqwe ngochwepheshe abathi ngalesi sikhathi kube nokwehla okwedlulele kolwandle futhi kungenxa yokuthi isibalo samakhemikhali e-polar kanye ne-glacial cap sikhuphukile. Lokhu kube nemiphumela edale ukuthi kuvele izingcezu zomhlaba ezicwilisiwe njengamanje. Isibonelo, kunecala lebhuloho lomhlaba elixhumanisa iRussia nezwekazi laseMelika. Njengamanje leli bhuloho licwilisiwe futhi lihlala ngendlela elaziwa ngayo ngegama leBering Strait.

Isimo sezulu sePliocene

I-Pliocene Ecosystem

Ngalesi sikhathi esadonsa cishe iminyaka eyizigidi ezi-3, isimo sezulu sasihluka kakhulu futhi sishintsha njalo. Ngokwamarekhodi aqoqwe ongoti besimo sezulu, bekunezikhathi lapho izinga lokushisa lenyuka kakhulu. Lokhu kwaqhathaniswa kwezinye izikhathi, ikakhulukazi ekupheleni kwePliocene, lapho amazinga okushisa ehla kakhulu.

Phakathi kwezici ezibaluleke kakhulu zesimo sezulu salesi sikhathi ukuthi bekuyisimo sezulu sonyaka. Lokho wukuthi, bethula izinkathi zonyaka, ezimbili zazo zimakwe kakhulu. Obunye ubusika lapho iqhwa lisakazeka khona engxenyeni enkulu yomhlaba. Okunye kwakuyihlobo lapho iqhwa lancibilika khona futhi langena ebuhleni bomhlaba lisomile impela.

Ngokuvamile, kungashiwo ukuthi isimo sezulu ekupheleni kwePliocene sasomile impela ngenxa yokwanda kwamazinga okushisa esasixoxe ngawo phambilini. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ithole ukubukeka okwomile futhi yabangela ukuthi imvelo iguqulwe futhi iguqulwe isuke emahlathini iye kuma-savanna.

I-Biodiversidad

Izilwane ziye zahlukahluka kakhulu ngesikhathi sePliocene futhi zeza ekoloni ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene. Kodwa-ke, izimbali zahlushwa uhlobo lokuhlehla ngenxa yokuthi isimo sezulu besingesihle kakhulu. Ngokubakhona kobusika lapho iqhwa lithatha ingxenye enkulu yomhlaba kanye nehlobo elomile nelomile, bekungekho zimo ezidingekayo zokuthuthukisa noma ukwehlukahluka kwezitshalo.

Flora

Izinsalela zeFlora

Izitshalo ezanda kakhulu ngesikhathi sePliocene kwakuyizindawo ezinotshani. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ziyizitshalo ezingakwazi ukuzivumelanisa kalula namazinga okushisa aphansi abekhona ngesikhathi sePliocene. Ezinye izitshalo ezishisayo bezikhona, ikakhulukazi emahlathini nasemahlathini, kepha kukhawulwe kuphela esifundeni esisenkabazwe. Kukule ndawo lapho isimo sezulu sasikhona ukuze bachume basabalale.

Izinguquko zesimo sezulu ezenzeke ngalesi sikhathi zidale ukuthi izindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba zibonakale zinezindawo ezimbalwa kakhulu ezinezimpawu zogwadule. Ezinye zalezi zindawo zisadlangile nanamuhla. Ngokuqondene nezindawo eziseduze nezigxobo, kwasungulwa uhlobo olufanayo lwezimbali olwandile namuhla. Ziyi-conifers. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi banokumelana okukhulu namakhaza futhi bayakwazi ukukhula emazingeni okushisa aphansi.

Fauna

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, esinye sezinyathelo ezibalulekile maqondana nomuntu savela ngalesi sikhathi. Izilwane ezincelisayo nazo zathola imisebe emikhulu yokuziphendukela kwemvelo kubangele ukuthi basabalale ezindaweni eziningi ezahlukahlukene.

Ngalolu lwazi ungazi kabanzi ngePliocene nazo zonke izici eziyinhloko.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.