IiHimalaya

iincopho eziphakamileyo zehealayas

Xa uthetha ngeyona ntaba inkulu ehlabathini usoloko uthetha ngayo iindaba. Luluhlu lweentaba phakathi kwazo olunezona ncopho ziphakamileyo ezikhoyo kwiplanethi yethu, kubandakanya ne-Everest eyaziwayo kunye ne-K2. Inezinto ezininzi zomkhenkce weentaba ezinexabiso eliphezulu lendalo. Nangona inkulu kakhulu, ithathwa njengenye yeenkqubo ezincinci zeentaba kwiplanethi yethu.

Kule nqaku siza kuthetha ngazo zonke iimpawu, i-geology, i-flora kunye nezilwanyana ezikhoyo kwii-Himalaya kunye nokubaluleka kwayo kwindalo. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi okungakumbi ngeyona ntaba idumileyo ehlabathini? Qhubeka ufunda kuba uya kufunda yonke into 🙂

Izinto ngokubanzi

Uluhlu lweentaba zehealayan

IiHimalaya zifumaneka kulo lonke elasezantsi mpuma Asia. Olu luhlu lweentaba lugcina ezinye zeendlela ezintle eMhlabeni ziphila. Ihamba umgama omde ohlala kumazwe amahlanu okwandiswa: I-Indiya, iNepal, iTshayina, iBhutan nePakistan. Ngenxa yemozulu kunye nokuphakama kweentaba zayo, kukho iindawo ezinkulu zokubeka umkhenkce ezenza ukuba zibe kwindawo ezintathu kwinqanaba lehlabathi. I-Antarctica kunye ne-Arctic kuphela kwento enokudlula ezi ntaba ngokweqhwa. Nangona ingangeni kwindawo ephezulu yomkhenkce, ibonakala ngobuhle bayo obungenakubalwa Iintaba zeAppalachian.

Ngaphandle kwento yokuba ezi ntaba zinemozulu ebanda kakhulu, iidolophu ezininzi kunye neendawo zokuhlala ezahlukeneyo ziye zahlala ekuhambeni kwexesha. Inkcubeko ekhula kwezi ndawo yahlukile, kuba ayinakubakho naphina kwenye indawo. Ukongeza kwinkcubeko ekhethekileyo kunye nokukhethekileyo kwimozulu ebandayo, inomtsalane kubakhenkethi, hayi kuphela kubakhenkethi abasuka kwamanye amazwe, kodwa nakwabaqeqeshi abonyukayo abazama ukunyuka baye phezulu ukuze baphule iirekhodi zehlabathi.

Abemi bale ndawo baziwa njenge USherpas kwaye zezona ngcali kwezona ntaba zeNepal. Ngapha koko, uninzi luzinikele ekufundiseni abakhweli abasakhasayo yonke into abayifunayo ukuze baphile kwiindawo eziphakamileyo zeHimalaya. Kwaye kukuba kumanqanaba aphezulu amaqondo obushushu ehla kunye noxinzelelo lweatmosfera kwaye bavelisa iimeko ezinzima kakhulu zokusingqongileyo ukuze bakwazi ukunyuka.

USherpas wazalelwa kwezi ndawo ke banenkqubo yokulungelelanisa iminyaka emininzi kwimeko yendalo. IiHimalaya zizinto ezinamandla zonqulo kubo bonke abantu abakufutshane neentaba. Alukho inkolo enye kuphela elawula kwezi ndawo, kodwa amaHindu, amaJain, amaBuddha, kunye namaSikh enza amasiko abo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

iindawo ezimangalisayo zeHimalaya

Ubude bebonke beHimalaya ziikhilomitha ezingama-2400 ubude kwaye bubaleka ukusuka empuma ukuya entshona yoMlambo i-Indus. Ihamba kuwo onke amazwe akumbindi-mpuma we-Asiya kwaye iphela kwi-Brahmaputra. Ububanzi bayo bububanzi buyi-260 km.

Ukuba luluhlu lweentaba zale milinganiselo, imilambo emininzi ihamba ngokuqukuqela okukhulu ngenxa yamanzi acocekileyo ngenxa yokunyibilika komkhenkce. Unokonwabela neentlambo ezintle ezimilise u-U ngenxa yokhukuliseko lomkhenkce. Ezi nkqubo zangaphandle zejoloji zinomdla ngokwenene kwaye kufanelekile ukuzibona buqu. Eyona milambo iphambili ingena kwiiHimalaya yile iGanges, Indo, Yarlung Tsangpo, Mthubi, Mekong, Nujiang kunye neBrahmaputra. Yonke le milambo inomsinga omkhulu kwaye idume ngamanzi acocekileyo endalo. Banesakhono sokulawula imozulu yeplanethi kwaye baphathe iindawo ezininzi kunye nokuhamba ukuya kwiindawo ezingqongileyo. Oku kuhamba kuhamba kulayishwe ngezinto zendalo ezityebileyo kwizondlo.

Uluhlu lweentaba zeHimalaya lwenziwa njani?

Incopho yehealayan

Ukuze olu luhlu lweentaba lwenziwe ngale ndlela, inkqubo ethile yokwakheka komhlaba engaphandle enobukhulu obukhulu kwakufuneka ibekhona. Uluhlu lweentaba zeHimalaya lwenziwa ngenxa yongqubano lweplate ye-Indic kunye ne-Eurasian. La macwecwe mabini amazwekazi angqubana ngamandla amakhulu kwaye aphuhlisa zonke iintlobo zeentaba esizibonayo namhlanje. Xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iintaba ezinkulu kwiplanethi yethu, kwiiHimalaya zincinci. Nditsho noko kuba kumgangatho womntu indala kakhulu, kodwa masingalibali Ixesha lejoloji.

Esinye sezizathu zokuba baziwa ngokuba zezikhethiweyo zangoku kungenxa yokuba azinxitywanga kwaphela. Xa intaba indala iyaqapheleka ukuba incopho yayo ikhukuliseka kakhulu emva kweenkqubo eziqhubekayo zemvula, ikhephu, imvula kunye nomoya. Inkqubo eyenziwe ngayo ayikaqondwa ngokupheleleyo, kodwa ithelekiswa neAlps ukuzama ukufumana ubudala bayo. Uluntu lwenzululwazi luseke ukuba, xa omabini amacwecwe elizwekazi angqubana, uqweqwe loMhlaba lwenyuka kancinci kwizigidi zeminyaka.

Emva kovavanyo lwe paleontological kunye ne geological yendawo kuye kwafumaniseka ukuba ukuqala kokuyilwa kwale ntaba kwaqala kwiminyaka engama-55 yezigidi eyadlulayo. Ngeli xesha kuxa zombini iipleyiti zaqala ukungqubana. Le nkqubo ayikagqitywa namhlanje. Esi sizathu sokuba kubekho iinyikima ezininzi kule ndawo. Kungenxa yoko le nto iiHimalaya kusithiwa zincinci, ngenxa yokuba iintaba zayo ziyaqhubeka nokukhula namhlanje. Akukho nkqubo yejoloji ikhawuleza, kuqikelelwa ukuba iyakugqiba ukukhula ngaphakathi kweminyaka engama-60 ezigidi.

Iintyatyambo zeHimalaya kunye nezilwanyana

abakhwela ezintabeni

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, le ndawo yendalo izele zizinto ezahlukeneyo ezingafaniyo zezityalo nezilwanyana. Kukho iintlobo ngeentlobo zeentlobo kunye neentlobo zembonakalo yomhlaba kuxhomekeke kwisimo sezulu esisondeleyo. Umzekelo, sifumana amahlathi apholileyo, ashushu kunye namahlathi asemaphandleni. Njengoko sisonyuka kwindawo ephezulu, sifumana iindawo apho kukho kuphela umkhenkce nekhephu.

Ingxowa-mali yeHlabathi yeNdalo (WWF) ifunde nzulu ngazo zonke iintlobo zezinto eziphilayo kwaye ivelise uluhlu apho ibonisa khona ukuba zihlala kunye. Izilwanyana ezanyisayo ezingama-200, ngaphezu kwe-10.000 iintlobo zezityalo kunye neentlobo ezingama-977 zeentaka. Obu bubutyebi ekufuneka buxabisiwe, kuba namhlanje zimbalwa iindawo ezinokwahluka okunje kwezityalo nezilwanyana.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi lukunceda ukuba wazi ngakumbi ngezona ntaba zidumileyo emhlabeni.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   URicardo Ledesma sitsho

    Ngokufutshane kwaye kwacaciswa ngokufanelekileyo. Kuhle kakhulu. Enkosi ngokwabelana.

  2.   IsiJamani sasePortillo sitsho

    Enkosi kakhulu ngengcaciso yakho nangokufunda uRicardo!

    Nibuliso!