Phiri la Merapi

phiri la merapi volcano

Mount Merapi ndi phiri lophulika lomwe lili ku Central Java, Indonesia, pafupifupi makilomita 30 kumpoto kwa Yogyakarta, mzindawu uli ndi anthu opitilira 500.000. Dzikoli lili m’gulu la mapiri amene amaphulika kwambiri padziko lonse, makamaka chifukwa chakuti lili m’dera locheperapo. Kuphatikiza apo, ndi mapiri omwe amaphulika kwambiri ku Indonesia.

M'nkhaniyi tikuuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza Mount Merapi, makhalidwe ake, kuphulika ndi kufunika kwake.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

phiri merapi

Gunung Merapi, monga imadziwika m'dziko lake, imatchedwa stratovolcano kapena volcano yophatikizika yomwe mawonekedwe ake adapangidwa kuchokera kumadzi omwe adathamangitsidwa zaka mamiliyoni ambiri. Global Volcanic Activity Programme imanena kuti ili pamtunda wa mamita 2.968 pamwamba pa nyanja, ngakhale kuti United States Geological Survey imatchula kuti mamita 2.911. Miyezo imeneyi si yolondola, chifukwa kupitirizabe kuphulika kwa mapiri kudzawasintha. Pakali pano ndi yochepa kusiyana ndi kuphulika kwamphamvu kumene kunachitika chaka cha 2010 chisanafike.

Mawu oti "Merapi" amatanthauza "Phiri la Moto." Malowa ali pafupi ndi dera lomwe lili ndi anthu ambiri, ndipo kuphulikako kwachititsa kuti kuphulikako kukhaleko m'zaka khumi za mapiri, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti likhale limodzi mwa mapiri 16 omwe amawerengedwa kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Ngakhale kuli koopsa, a Javanese ali olemera mu nthano ndi nthano, kuwonjezera apo, kukongola kwawo kwachirengedwe kodziwikiratu kumakongoletsedwa pansi pa zomera zowirira ndipo kumakhala mitundu yambiri ya nyama.

Kupanga kwa Mount Merapi

phiri lophulika

Merapi ili m'malo ochepera pomwe mbale ya Indian-Australia imamira pansi pa mbale ya Sunda (kapena probe). Malo ocheperako ndi malo omwe mbale imamira pansi pa mbale ina, kuchititsa zivomezi ndi / kapena zochitika zamapiri. Zinthu zomwe zimapanga mbalezo zimakankhira magma kutali ndi dziko lapansi, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti azikwera kwambiri mpaka kutumphuka kuphulika ndikupanga phiri lophulika.

Kuchokera pamalingaliro a geological, a Merapi ndi anthu aang'ono kwambiri kum'mwera kwa Java. Kuphulika kwake mwina kunayamba zaka 400.000 zapitazo ndipo kuyambira pamenepo wakhala akudziwika ndi khalidwe lake lachiwawa. Chiphalaphala chooneka bwino komanso zinthu zolimba zomwe zinatayidwa pa nthawi ya kuphulika kwa chiphalaphala chophulika zowunjikana mosanjikizana ndipo pamwamba pake panauma, n’kupanga chiphalaphala chofanana ndi chiphala chamoto. Pambuyo pa maonekedwe ake, Merapi inapitiriza kukula pa Pleistocene mpaka zaka 2,000 zapitazo kugwa kwa nyumba yaikulu kunachitika.

Kuphulika kwa phiri la Merapi

volcano ku Indonesia

Ili ndi mbiri yakale ya kuphulika kwachiwawa. Pakhala kuphulika 68 kuyambira 1548, ndipo mkati mwa kukhalapo kwake, pakhala 102 zotsimikiziridwa kuphulika padziko lapansi. Nthawi zambiri imakhala ndi kuphulika kwakukulu komwe kumatuluka ndi pyroclastic, koma pakapita nthawi, imaphulika kwambiri ndikupanga dome lava, pulagi yozungulira ngati mulu.

Nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi zidzolo zazing'ono zaka 2-3 zilizonse komanso zotupa zazikulu zaka 10-15 zilizonse. Kutuluka kwa pyroclastic komwe kumapangidwa ndi phulusa, gasi, miyala ya pumice ndi zidutswa zina za miyala ndizoopsa kwambiri kuposa chiphalaphala, chifukwa zimatha kutsika pa liwiro la makilomita oposa 150 pa ola ndikukafika kumadera akuluakulu, kuwononga kwathunthu kapena pang'ono. Vuto la Merapi ndi loti ili m'dera lina lomwe lili ndi anthu ambiri ku Indonesia, ndipo anthu oposa 24 miliyoni ali pamtunda wa makilomita 100.

Kuphulika koopsa kwambiri kunachitika mu 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930, ndi 2010. Kuphulika kwa 1006 kunali kwamphamvu kwambiri moti amakhulupirira kuti kunachititsa kuti Ufumu wa Mataram uwonongeke, ngakhale kuti palibe umboni wokwanira wochirikiza chikhulupiriro chimenechi. . . Komabe, 2010 idakhala chaka choyipa kwambiri mzaka za zana la 353, zomwe zidakhudza anthu masauzande ambiri, kuwononga mahekitala a zomera ndikupha anthu XNUMX.

Chochitikacho chinayamba mu October ndipo chinapitirira mpaka December. Zinapanga zivomezi, kuphulika kwamoto (osati kumodzi kokha), kuphulika kwa chiphalaphala chotentha, kuphulika kwa mapiri, kutuluka kwa pyroclastic, mitambo yochuluka ya phulusa lamoto, ngakhalenso moto umene unachititsa kuti anthu pafupifupi 350.000 athawe m'nyumba zawo. Pamapeto pake, inakhala imodzi mwa masoka achilengedwe aakulu kwambiri ku Indonesia m’zaka zaposachedwapa.

Zotupa zaposachedwa

Phiri lophulika lomwe laphulika kwambiri ku Indonesia linaphulikanso Lolemba, pa Ogasiti 16, 2021, ndipo mitsinje ya mitambo ya chiphalaphala ndi mpweya kuchokera pansi pa phirili pachilumba cha Java chomwe chili ndi anthu ambiri, chomwe chili pamtunda wa 3,5 , 2 kilometers (XNUMX miles).

Mkokomo wa kuphulika kwa chiphalachi umamveka makilomita angapo kuchokera ku Mount Merapi, ndipo phulusa lachiphalaphala lomwe linaphulika kuchokera ku phirili ndi pafupifupi mamita 600 (pafupifupi mamita 2000). Phulusa linaphimba midzi yapafupi, ngakhale kuti lamulo lakale losamutsidwa linali logwira ntchito pafupi ndi chigwacho, kotero kuti palibe ovulala omwe adanenedwa.

Mtsogoleri wa Yogyakarta Volcanic and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center, Hanik Humeda, adati uwu ndi mpweya waukulu kwambiri kuchokera ku Mount Merapi kuyambira pomwe akuluakulu adakweza ngoziyi mu Novembala chaka chatha.

Dome lakum’mwera chakumadzulo likuyerekezeredwa kukhala ndi voliyumu ya ma cubic metres 1,8 miliyoni (66,9 miliyoni cubic feet) ndi utali pafupifupi mamita atatu (3 feet). Kenako idagwa pang'ono Lolemba m'mawa, ndikuphulika mafunde a pyroclastic kuchokera kumwera chakumadzulo kwa phirili osachepera kawiri.

Masana, zinthu zina zing'onozing'ono ziwiri za pyroclastic zidaphulika, kutsika pafupifupi makilomita 1,5 (1 mile) kumwera chakumadzulo. Phirili lalitali mamita 2.968 (9.737-foot) lili pafupi ndi Yogyakarta, mzinda wakale womwe uli ndi anthu masauzande ambiri mu mzinda wa Java Island. Kwa zaka mazana ambiri, mzindawu wakhala likulu la chikhalidwe cha Javanese komanso malo a banja lachifumu.

chenjezo la Merapi lakhalabe pachiwopsezo chachiwiri mwa zinayi kuyambira pomwe lidayamba kuphulika Novembala watha, ndipo ku Indonesia ku Indonesia Geological and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation Center sikunakweze ngakhale kuchuluka kwa ntchito.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za Mount Merapi ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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