orbit ndi chiyani

orbit ndi chiyani

Tikamakamba za zakuthambo, mapulaneti ndi mapulaneti, nthawi zonse timalankhula za orbit. Komabe, si aliyense akudziwa orbit ndi chiyani, ndi yofunika bwanji komanso makhalidwe ake. Tinganene m’njira yosavuta kumva kuti njira yozungulira dziko lapansi ndiyo njira ya zinthu zakuthambo m’chilengedwe chonse.

M'nkhaniyi tikuuzani zomwe orbit ndi, makhalidwe ake ndi kufunika kwake.

orbit ndi chiyani

dzuwa

Mu physics, orbit ndi njira yofotokozedwa ndi chinthu chimodzi mozungulira chinzake, ndikuzungulira njirayo pansi pa mphamvu yapakati; monga mphamvu yokoka ya thupi lakumwamba. Iyi ndi njira yomwe chinthu chimatsatira pamene chikuyenda mozungulira pakati pa mphamvu yokoka yomwe imakopeka, poyamba popanda kuchikhudza, koma osati kutali ndi icho.

Kuyambira m’zaka za zana la XNUMX (pamene Johannes Kepler ndi Isaac Newton anapanga malamulo ofunikira a fizikiya amene amawalamulira), mizere yazungulira yakhala lingaliro lofunika kwambiri pomvetsetsa mmene chilengedwe chimayendera, makamaka ponena za chemistry yakumwamba ndi ya atomu.

Zozungulira zimatha kukhala ndi mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana, zozungulira, zozungulira kapena zazitali, ndipo zimatha kukhala zofananira. (zooneka ngati parabola) kapena hyperbolic (zooneka ngati hyperbola). Mosasamala kanthu, njira iliyonse ili ndi zinthu zisanu ndi chimodzi za Kepler:

  • Mayendedwe a ndege ya orbital, yowonetsedwa ndi chizindikiro i.
  • Kutalika kwa mfundo yokwera, yosonyezedwa mu chizindikiro Ω.
  • Eccentricity kapena digiri ya kupatuka kuchokera ku circumference, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro e.
  • Mzere wa semimajor, kapena theka la utali wautali kwambiri, umasonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro a.
  • Perihelion kapena perihelion parameter, ngodya yochokera kumalo okwera kupita ku perihelion, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro ω.
  • Tanthauzo lachilendo la epoch, kapena kachigawo kakang'ono ka nthawi ya orbital, ndipo imawonetsedwa ngati ngodya, yosonyezedwa ndi chizindikiro M0.

Makhalidwe ndi kufunikira

Kodi kanjira ka mlengalenga ndi chiyani

Zinthu zazikulu zomwe zitha kuwonedwa mu orbit ndi izi:

  • Amakhala ndi mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana, koma onse ndi oval, kutanthauza kuti ali ndi mawonekedwe ozungulira.
  • Pankhani ya mapulaneti, mayendedwe ake amakhala pafupifupi ozungulira.
  • Mu orbit, mutha kupeza zinthu zosiyanasiyana monga mwezi, mapulaneti, ma asteroids ndi zipangizo zina zopangidwa ndi anthu.
  • Mmenemo, zinthu zimatha kuzungulirana chifukwa cha mphamvu yokoka.
  • Njira iliyonse yomwe ilipo imakhala ndi eccentricity yake, yomwe ndi kuchuluka kwake komwe njira yozungulira imasiyana ndi bwalo langwiro.
  • Iwo ali ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana zofunika, monga kutengera, eccentricity, zikutanthauza anomaly, nodal longitude ndi perihelion magawo.

Kufunika kwakukulu kwa njira yozungulirayi ndikuti mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ma satelayiti itha kuyikidwamo, yomwe imayang'anira kuyang'anira dziko lapansi, zomwe ndizofunikira kwambiri kuti mupeze mayankho ndikuwonetsetsa bwino zanyengo, nyanja, mlengalenga ndi chilengedwe. ngakhale mkati mwa dziko lapansi. dziko lapansi. Masetilaiti angaperekenso chidziŵitso chofunika kwambiri chokhudza zochita za anthu, monga kudula mitengo mwachisawawa, ndiponso mmene nyengo ilili, monga kukwera kwa madzi a m’nyanja, kukokoloka kwa nthaka, ndi kuipitsa malo okhala padziko lapansi.

orbit mu chemistry

 

Mu chemistry, timakamba za kanjira ka ma elekitironi oyenda mozungulira phata chifukwa cha ma electromagnetic charges osiyanasiyana omwe ali nawo (ma elekitironi ali ndi mphamvu yoyipa, ma proton ndi neutroni nuclei ali ndi charger). Ma electron alibe njira zotsimikizika, koma nthawi zambiri amatchedwa orbitals otchedwa atomic orbitals, malinga ndi kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe ali nazo.

Mtundu uliwonse wa atomiki umaimiridwa ndi nambala ndi chilembo. Manambala (1, 2, 3 ... mpaka 7) amasonyeza mlingo wa mphamvu zomwe tinthu tikuyenda, pamene zilembo (s, p, d ndi f) zimasonyeza mawonekedwe a orbit.

Kutalika

elliptical orbit

M'malo mozungulira, elliptical orbit imajambula ellipse, yozungulira, yozungulira. Chithunzichi, ellipse, chili ndi zigawo ziwiri, komwe kuli nkhwangwa zapakati za zozungulira ziwiri zomwe zimachipanga; kuonjezera apo, kanjira kamtunduwu kamakhala ndi kanjira kokulirapo kuposa ziro ndipo kuchepera kumodzi (0 ndi kofanana ndi kanjira kozungulira, 1 ndi kofanana ndi kanjira ka parabolic).

Njira iliyonse ya elliptical ili ndi mfundo ziwiri:

  • Ena. Mfundo yomwe ili panjira ya orbit (pa imodzi mwa foci ziwiri) yomwe ili pafupi kwambiri ndi thupi lapakati lozungulira njirayo.
  • Kupitilira apo. Mfundo yomwe ili panjira ya orbital (pa imodzi mwazinthu ziwirizi) yomwe ili kutali kwambiri ndi voliyumu yapakati ya njira yokonzedwa.

Njira ya dzuwa

Mofanana ndi mapulaneti ambiri, mayendedwe ofotokozedwa ndi nyenyezi za Dzuwa la Solar System ndi ozungulira kwambiri. Pakatikati pali nyenyezi ya m'dongosolo la zinthu, dzuŵa lathu, limene mphamvu yake yokoka imasuntha mapulaneti ndi ma comet m'njira zosiyanasiyana. Parabolic kapena hyperbolic orbits kuzungulira dzuŵa sizimalumikizana mwachindunji ndi nyenyezi. Kumbali yawo, ma satelayiti a pulaneti lililonse amatsatanso kanjira ka pulaneti lililonse, monga momwe mwezi umachitira ndi Dziko Lapansi.

Komabe, nyenyezi zimakopananso, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mayendedwe ake azikhala osiyana ndi nthawi komanso wina ndi mnzake. Mwachitsanzo, Mercury ndi pulaneti lomwe lili ndi kanjira kakang'ono kwambiri, mwina chifukwa lili pafupi kwambiri ndi dzuwa, koma Mars ali pamalo achiwiri, kutali ndi dzuwa. Kumbali ina, njira za Venus ndi Neptune ndizochepa kwambiri.

kuzungulira kwa dziko lapansi

Dziko lapansi, mofanana ndi oyandikana nawo, limazungulira dzuwa mozungulira pang'ono, zomwe zimatenga masiku 365 (pachaka), zomwe timazitcha kumasulira. Kusamuka kumeneku kumachitika pafupifupi makilomita 67.000 pa ola.

Pakali pano, pali njira zinayi zozungulira dziko lapansi, monga ma satellites ochita kupanga:

  • Baja (LEO). Makilomita 200 mpaka 2.000 kuchokera padziko lapansi.
  • Wati (OEM). 2.000 mpaka 35.786 km kuchokera padziko lapansi.
  • Mkulu (HEO). 35.786 mpaka 40.000 makilomita kuchokera padziko lapansi.
  • Geostationary (GEO). mtunda wa makilomita 35.786 kuchokera padziko lapansi. Iyi ndi njira yolumikizirana ndi equator ya Dziko lapansi, yokhala ndi zero eccentricity, ndipo kwa wowonera Padziko Lapansi, chinthucho chikuwoneka choyima mumlengalenga.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za orbit ndi momwe zimakhalira.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa.

*

*

  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.