Phokoso la Moto

pacific mphete yamoto

Pa dziko lapansili, madera ena ndi oopsa kwambiri kuposa ena, choncho mayina a madera amenewa ndi ochititsa chidwi kwambiri ndipo mungaganize kuti mayinawa amanena za zinthu zoopsa kwambiri. Munkhaniyi, tikambirana Phokoso la Moto kuchokera ku Pacific. Dzinali limatanthauza malo ozungulira nyanjayi, kumene zivomezi ndi mapiri ophulika zimachitika kawirikawiri.

M'nkhaniyi tikuuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza mphete ya Moto, komwe ili komanso makhalidwe ake.

Kodi mphete ya Moto ndi chiyani

mapiri ophulika

M’malo ooneka ngati nsapato za akavalo m’malo mozungulira, zivomezi zambiri ndi zochitika za mapiri ophulika zalembedwa. Izi zimapangitsa kuti derali likhale loopsa kwambiri chifukwa cha ngozi yomwe ingachitike. Mphete iyi imayambira ku New Zealand mpaka kugombe lonse lakumadzulo kwa South America, ndi utali wonse wa makilomita oposa 40.000. Imadutsanso gombe lonse la East Asia ndi Alaska, ndikudutsa kumpoto chakum'mawa kwa North ndi Central America.

Monga tanenera mu mbale tectonics, lamba uyu chizindikiro m'mphepete kumene Pacific Plate coexists ndi mbale zina zing'onozing'ono tectonic kuti kupanga chotchedwa kutumphuka. Monga dera lomwe limakhala ndi zivomezi pafupipafupi komanso kuphulika kwa mapiri, limadziwika kuti ndi lowopsa.

Kuphunzitsa

mapiri padziko lapansi

Pacific Ring of Fire imapangidwa ndi kusuntha kwa mbale za tectonic. Mambale sali okhazikika, koma akuyenda nthawi zonse. Izi ndichifukwa cha kupezeka kwa convection mu chobvala. Kusiyana kwa kachulukidwe ka zinthu kumawapangitsa kuti azisuntha ndipo kumapangitsa kuti mbale za tectonic zizisuntha. Mwanjira iyi, kusamuka kwa masentimita angapo pachaka kumatheka. Sitinazindikire pamlingo waumunthu, koma ngati tiwunika nthawi ya geologic, ikuwonekera.

Kwa zaka mamiliyoni ambiri, kuyenda kwa mbalezi kunayambitsa kupangidwa kwa Pacific Ring of Fire. Ma mbale a tectonic sali ogwirizana kwathunthu, koma pali mipata pakati pawo. Nthawi zambiri amakhala okhuthala pafupifupi ma kilomita 80 ndipo amasuntha modutsa muchovala chomwe tatchulacho.

Mambalewa akamasuntha, amakonda kupatukana ndi kugundana. Malingana ndi kachulukidwe kamtundu uliwonse, imodzi imathanso kumira pa inzake. Mwachitsanzo, kachulukidwe ka mbale za m'nyanja ndi zazikulu kuposa za matanthwe a kontinenti. Pachifukwa chimenechi, mbale ziwiri zikawombana, zimamira kutsogolo kwa mbale ina. Kuyenda uku ndi kugundana kwa mbalezi kunapanga zochitika zamphamvu za geological m'mphepete mwa mbalezo. Choncho, maderawa amaonedwa makamaka achangu.

Malire a mbale omwe timapeza:

  • Convergence limit. M'malire awa muli malo omwe mbale za tectonic zimawombana. Izi zitha kupangitsa kuti mbale yolemerayo igunde ndi mbale yopepuka. Mwanjira imeneyi otchedwa subduction zone amapangidwa. Mbale imodzi imadutsa pa ina. M’madera amene zimenezi zimachitika, muli mapiri ambiri amene amaphulika chifukwa chakuti kuphulika kumeneku kumapangitsa kuti phirili lidutse pansi pa nthaka. Mwachionekere, izi sizidzachitika kamphindi. Iyi ndi njira yomwe imatenga mabiliyoni azaka. Umu ndi momwe phiri lamapiri linapangidwira.
  • Malire osiyana. Iwo ndi osiyana kwambiri ndi convergent. Pakati pa mbalezi, mbalezo zimakhala zolekanitsidwa. Chaka chilichonse amasiyana pang'ono, kupanga nyanja yatsopano.
  • Malire osintha. Pazoletsa izi, mbale sizimalekanitsidwa kapena kulumikizidwa, zimangoyenda molumikizana kapena mopingasa.
  • Malo otentha. Ndi madera omwe kutentha kwa chovalacho mwachindunji pansi pa mbale ndipamwamba kuposa madera ena. Pazifukwa izi, magma otentha amatha kukwera pamwamba ndikutulutsa mapiri ophulika kwambiri.

Malire a mapulaneti amaonedwa kuti ndi madera omwe geology ndi zochitika za mapiri zimakhazikika. Choncho, n’zachibadwa kuti mapiri ophulika ndi zivomezi zambirimbiri zafika ku Pacific Ring of Fire. Vuto ndi pamene chivomezi chimachitika m'nyanja ndikuyambitsa tsunami ndi tsunami yofanana. Pazifukwa izi, chiwopsezocho chidzawonjezeka mpaka kubweretsa masoka ngati a ku Fukushima mu 2011.

Zochita za Volcano za mphete ya Moto

mphete ya Moto

Mwina mwaona kuti kugaŵikana kwa mapiri ophulika padziko lapansi n’kosagwirizana. Zosiyana kwambiri. Iwo ndi gawo la gawo lalikulu la zochitika za geological. Ngati kulibe zochitika zotere, phirilo silingakhalepo. Zivomezi zimachitika chifukwa cha kudzikundikira ndi kutulutsa mphamvu pakati pa mbale. Zivomezi izi ndizofala kwambiri m'maiko athu a Pacific Ring of Fire.

Ndipo kodi izi ndi izi Mphete ya Moto ndi yomwe imayang'ana 75% ya mapiri ophulika a dziko lonse lapansi. 90% ya zivomezi zimachitikanso. Pali zilumba zosawerengeka ndi zisumbu pamodzi, komanso mapiri osiyanasiyana ophulika, ndi kuphulika kwamphamvu. Mapiri ophulika ndi ofala kwambiri. Ndiwo maunyolo a mapiri ophulika omwe ali pamwamba pa mbale zochepetsera.

Izi zimapangitsa kuti anthu ambiri padziko lonse lapansi achite chidwi komanso kuchita mantha ndi dera lozimitsa motoli. Izi zili choncho chifukwa mphamvu za zochita zawo ndi zazikulu ndipo zingayambitse masoka achilengedwe.

Mayiko omwe amadutsamo

Unyolo wokulirapo wa tectonic ukufalikira madera anayi akuluakulu: North America, Central America, South America, Asia, ndi Oceania.

  • Kumpoto kwa Amerika: imayenda m'mphepete mwa nyanja yakumadzulo kwa Mexico, United States, ndi Canada, kupitilira ku Alaska, ndikulumikizana ndi Asia ku North Pacific.
  • Central America: zikuphatikizapo madera a Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala ndi Belize.
  • South America: M’gawo limeneli muli pafupifupi dziko lonse la Chile ndi madera ena a Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador ndi Colombia.
  • Asia: imakhudza gombe lakum'mawa kwa Russia ndipo ikupitiriza kudutsa mayiko ena a ku Asia monga Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, Singapore ndi Malaysia.
  • Oceania: Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Samoa ndi New Zealand ndi mayiko ku Oceania kumene mphete ya Moto ilipo.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za Pacific Ring of Fire, ntchito zake ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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