Claudius Ptolemy

Claudius ptolemy

Lero tikambirana za m'modzi mwa amuna omwe adapereka zambiri ku sayansi. Zili pafupi Claudius Ptolemy. Ndi munthu yemwe anali katswiri wazakuthambo wachi Greek, masamu komanso katswiri wazambiri zadziko ndipo, ngakhale pali zambiri zazing'ono zokhudza moyo wake, wasayansiyu adapulumuka mpaka lero. Sizikudziwika komwe adabadwira, kapena tsiku liti. Sizikudziwika komwe adamwalira koma tikudziwa zopereka zake zazikulu.

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kuti tikuuzeni za mbiri yonse ndi zomwe Claudio Ptolemy adachita.

Mbiri ya Claudius Ptolemy

mapu apadziko lonse lapansi ndi claudius ptolemy

Ngakhale sikudziwika komwe Claudius Ptolemy adabadwira, akuti kudali ku Egypt. Zochita zake zonse ndizokhazikitsidwa pakati masiku omwe mudawonapo koyamba mu AD 127 Izi zidanenedwa mchaka cha khumi ndi chimodzi cha ulamuliro wa Hadrian. Kumbali inayi, chimodzi mwazomwe adawona zaposachedwa ndi AD 141. M'ndandanda yamakalata adatengera chaka choyamba cha ulamuliro wa Emperor Antoninus Pius ngati deti loti maumboni onse. Chaka chofotokozedwachi chinali AD 138

Claudius Ptolemy ndiye woimira womaliza wamkulu wazamayendedwe onse achi Greek. Ndipo ndichakuti ntchito yake yayikulu idapangidwa mwa oyang'anira kachisi wa Serapis ku Canopus. Makinawa anali pafupi ndi Alexandria. Ntchito yotchuka komanso yotchuka ya Claudius Ptolemy yomwe adadziwika nayo ndi Masamu Syntax. Ntchitoyi idagawika m'magawo 13 omwe adasankhidwa kuti ndi ntchito yayikulu komanso yayikulu. Mwanjira imeneyi, itha kusiyanitsidwa ndi zolembedwa zina zakuthambo zolembedwa ndi olemba ena. Kufunika kwa ntchito yake kumatha kukhala kofunikira popititsa patsogolo sayansi.

Kutamandidwa komwe kudalimbikitsa ntchito yonse ya Claudius Ptolemy kudabweretsa chizolowezi chomutchulako pogwiritsa ntchito mawu achi Greek akuti megisté. Mawuwa amatanthauza zabwino kwambiri. Umu ndi momwe mphamvu ya Khalifa al-Mamun adali nayo m'Chiarabu chonse yomasuliridwa mu 827. Dzinalo la al-Magisti monga matanthauzidwe omwe amachokera pamutu wa Almagest. Udindowu udalandiridwa ku West medieval kuchokera kumasuliridwe oyamba achiarabu. Kumasulira kumeneku kunapangidwa ku Toledo mu 1175.

Makhalidwe a ntchito ya Claudius Ptolemy

katswiri wa zakuthambo

Pogwiritsa ntchito chidziwitso chonse chomwe adasonkhanitsa omwe adalipo kale, Claudius Ptolemy adapanga dongosolo lapadziko lonse lapansi lomwe limayimira ndi mankhwala okwanira mayendedwe onse owoneka ngati dzuwa, mwezi ndi mapulaneti asanu odziwika panthawiyo. Anagwiritsa ntchito makamaka chidziwitso chomwe Hipparchus adasonkhanitsa popeza adaganizira kwambiri izi. Anatha kukhazikitsa kusunthaku mwanjira inayake molondola chifukwa cha zida zamagetsi ndi kuwerengera kovuta. Maziko a chidziwitsochi adakhazikitsidwa ndi makina am'madzi. M'dongosolo ili linali Dziko Lapansi lomwe silitha kuyenda pakatikati pa chilengedwe. Kuchokera apa, zinthu zonse zakumwamba, kuphatikiza dzuwa, mwezi ndi mapulaneti ena onse, zimazungulira dziko lathuli.

Mapulaneti odziwika panthawiyo anali Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, ndi Saturn. M'dongosolo lino, Dziko lapansi lidakhala pamalo ochepera pang'ono pokhudzana ndi malo ozungulira momwe zinthu zonse zakuthambo zidasunthira. Mizere iyi imadziwika ngati magulu osiyanasiyana. Thupi lokhalo lakumwamba lomwe lidadutsa mozungulira mozungulira ndikumayenda yunifolomu linali dzuwa. Kumbali ina, mwezi ndi mapulaneti ena onse zimadutsa kuzungulira kwina. Bwaloli limatchedwa epicycle. Pakatikati pa epicycle imayenda mozungulira komanso Amalola kuti afotokozere a Claudius Ptolemy zoyipa zonse zomwe zimawonedwa poyenda kwa zakuthambo.

Makina a Claudius Ptolemy

chitsanzo cha chilengedwe chonse

Njirayi idatha kutanthauzira kutuluka konse kwa mapulaneti komwe kumagwirizana bwino ndi mfundo za cosmology ya Aristoteli yomwe idalipo panthawiyo. Iyenso idangokhala chitsanzo chokha mpaka nthawi ya Kubadwanso kwatsopano. Pa nthawi yakubadwanso, panali kulondola kwambiri pakuwona zakuthambo ndipo panali zambiri chifukwa chakuwona zakuthambo kambiri. Zambiri zokhudzana ndi zakuthambo panthawiyi zidapangidwa kumapeto kwa nyengo yapakatikati. Ndikudziwa izi, zidakhala zofunikira kuti tidziwitse ma epicycle angapo omwe amapangitsa kuti chilichonse chokhudzana ndi zakuthambo chikhale chovuta kumvetsetsa.

M'malo mwake, mtundu wa heliocentric wowululidwa ndi Copernicus Ndi ntchito yomwe idayamba kutha kwa sayansi ya zakuthambo ya Claudius Ptolemy popeza inali yosavuta kwambiri ngati imodzi mwamphamvu izi.

Koma kumbukirani kuti Claudius Ptolemy Sanali katswiri wa zakuthambo komanso katswiri wa malo. Popeza adziwa za geography adatha kukhala ndi mphamvu yayikulu chifukwa chazomwe anapeza. Mu buku lake la mavoliyumu 8 lotchedwa Geography Maluso a masamu adapangidwa kuti ajambule mamapu osiyanasiyana molondola pogwiritsa ntchito makina osiyanasiyana. Imasonkhanitsanso magulu ofunikira komanso ofananirako omwe ali ndi malo osiyanasiyana padziko lapansi.

Pofuna kufotokoza bwino ntchitoyi, a Claudius Ptolemy adatengera lingaliro la Posidonius lakuzungulira kwa Dziko Lapansi. Kuyerekeza kumeneku kunali kotsika poyerekeza ndi phindu lenileni ndikukokomeza kukula kwa kontinenti yaku Eurasian kum'mawa chakumadzulo. Izi zidachenjeza Christopher Columbus kuti ayambe ulendo wake, womwe ndi womwe udatulukire America.

Ntchito zina

Ntchito ina ya a Claudio Ptolemy Idagawika m'magawo 5 ndipo limadziwika ndi dzina la Zabwino. Anati ntchito ya iyeyo pamalingaliro a kalilole ndikuwunika ndikuwonetsa kuwala. Zodabwitsazi zinali zakuthupi ndipo zovuta zomwe zidawakhudza zidaganiziridwa pakuwona zakuthambo. Amatchulidwanso kuti ndiye wolemba buku lokhulupirira zakuthambo lotchedwa Tetrabiblos zomwe zidafotokoza mawonekedwe onse ndi zolembedwa zina ndikuti zinali zofunikira m'dera lomwe anali m'zaka za m'ma XNUMX mpaka m'ma XNUMX.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za mbiri ya a Claudio Ptolemy.

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