Mauna Merapi

ka mauna merapi lua pele

He lua pele ikaika ʻo Mount Merapi ma Central Java, Indonesia, ma kahi o 30 mau kilomita ma ka ʻākau o Yogyakarta, aia kēia kūlanakauhale ma mua o 500.000 mau kānaka. Ua koho ʻia ʻo ia kekahi o nā lua pele ʻoi loa o ka honua, no ka mea aia ma kahi ʻāpana hoʻohaʻahaʻa. Eia kekahi, ʻo ia ka ʻoi loa o nā lua pele ma Indonesia.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi aku mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau e pono ai ʻoe e ʻike e pili ana i ka mauna ʻo Merapi, he aha kona ʻano, ka pele a me ke koʻikoʻi.

Nā kuhikuhi nui

mauna merapi

ʻO Gunung Merapi, e like me ka mea i ʻike ʻia ma kona ʻāina, ua helu ʻia ʻo ia he stratovolcano a i ʻole ka lua pele composite nona ka hale i hoʻokumu ʻia mai nā kahe pele i kipaku ʻia i nā miliona mau makahiki. Ua ʻōlelo ka Global Volcanic Activity Program aia ia ma 2.968 mika ma luna o ka ʻilikai, ʻoiai ʻo ka United States Geological Survey i ʻōlelo ʻia ma 2.911 mika. ʻAʻole pololei kēia mau ana, no ka mea, ʻo ka hoʻomau ʻana o ka lua pele e hoʻololi iā lākou. He haʻahaʻa ia i kēia manawa ma mua o ka pele nui i hana ʻia ma mua o 2010.

ʻO ka huaʻōlelo "Merapi" ʻo ia hoʻi "Mauna ahi." Aia ʻo ia ma kahi kokoke i kahi paʻa kanaka, a no ka ikaika o ka pele i loaʻa iā ia kahi wahi i loko o nā makahiki he ʻumi o nā lua pele, a lilo ia i kekahi o nā lua pele he 16 i aʻo nui ʻia ma ka honua. ʻOiai ʻo ka pōʻino, ua waiwai ka Javanese i nā moʻolelo a me nā kaʻao, ʻo ia hoʻi, ua kāhiko ʻia ko lākou nani kūlohelohe i lalo o nā mea kanu paʻa a he home no nā ʻano holoholona he nui.

Ka hookumu ana o ka mauna Merapi

lua pele hana

Aia ʻo Merapi ma ka ʻāpana hoʻohaʻahaʻa kahi e pohō ai ka pā ʻĪnia-Australian ma lalo o ka pā Sunda (a i ʻole ka ʻimi noiʻi). ʻO kahi ʻāpana hoʻohaʻahaʻa kahi wahi e pohō ai ka pā ma lalo o kekahi pā, e hoʻoulu ai i nā ōlaʻi a / a i ʻole ka lua pele. ʻO ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu i nā papa e hoʻokuke aku i ka pelemaka mai loko aʻe o ka honua, e hana ana i ke kaomi nui, e koi ana iā ia e piʻi kiʻekiʻe a kiʻekiʻe a hiki i ka wā e haki ai ka ʻōpala a lilo i lua pele.

Mai ka ʻike honua, ʻo ka Merapi ka poʻe ʻōpio loa ma ka hema o Java. Ua hoʻomaka paha kona pele i 400.000 mau makahiki aku nei a mai ia manawa ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ia e kāna ʻano hana ʻino. ʻO ka pele viscous a me nā mea paʻa i hoʻokuʻu ʻia i ka wā o ka lua pele i ahu ʻia i loko o nā papa a paʻakikī ka ʻili, e hana ana i kahi ʻano lua pele maʻamau. Ma hope o kona ʻike ʻia ʻana, ua hoʻomau ka ulu ʻana o ka Merapi i ka wā o ka Pleistocene a hiki i ka 2,000 mau makahiki i hala aku nei ua hāʻule ka hale nui.

Ka pele o ka mauna Merapi

lua pele ma Indonesia

He moʻolelo lōʻihi kona o nā pele ʻino. He 68 mau pele pele mai ka makahiki 1548, a i kona ola ʻana, ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia he 102 mau pele pele ma ka honua. ʻIke maʻamau ia i nā pele pahū nui me nā kahe pyroclastic, akā i ka wā lōʻihi, lilo lākou i mea pahū a hana i kahi dome pele, kahi puʻu puʻu pōʻai.

ʻO ka maʻamau he liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi i kēlā me kēia 2-3 mau makahiki a me kahi maʻi nui i kēlā me kēia 10-15 makahiki. ʻOi aku ka pōʻino o nā kahe Pyroclastic i haku ʻia me ka lehu, ke kinoea, ka pōhaku pumice a me nā ʻāpana pōhaku ʻē aʻe ma mua o ka pele, no ka mea hiki iā lākou ke iho i ka wikiwiki ma mua o 150 mau kilomita i kēlā me kēia hola a hiki i nā wahi nui, e hōʻino ʻia ai ka nui a hapa ʻole. ʻO ka pilikia me Merapi aia ia ma kekahi o nā wahi paʻa loa i Indonesia, me ka ʻoi aku o 24 miliona mau kānaka i loko o kahi radius 100 km.

ʻO ka pele koʻikoʻi loa i hana ʻia i ka makahiki 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930, a me 2010. Ua ikaika loa ka pele i ka makahiki 1006 a ua manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ka hopena o ke aupuni Mataram, ʻoiai ʻaʻole lawa nā hōʻike e kākoʻo ai i kēia manaʻo. . . Eia naʻe, ua lilo ʻo 2010 i makahiki ʻino loa o ke kenekulia 353, e hoʻopilikia ana i nā tausani o ka poʻe, e luku ana i nā ʻeka o nā mea kanu a me ka pepehi ʻana i nā kānaka XNUMX.

Hoʻomaka ka hanana i ʻOkakopa a mau a hiki i Dekemaba. Ua hoʻopuka ʻo ia i nā ʻōlaʻi, nā pele pahū (ʻaʻole hoʻokahi wale nō), nā puʻu pele wela, nā ʻāina pele, nā kahe pyroclastic, nā ao lehu lua pele, a me nā pōpō ahi i holo ai ma kahi o 350.000 mau kānaka e holo i ko lākou mau home. I ka hopena, ua lilo ia i hoʻokahi o nā pōʻino kūlohelohe nui loa o Indonesia i nā makahiki i hala iho nei.

ʻO ka ʻūhū hou

Ua hū hou ka lua pele ʻoi loa o Indonesia ma ka Pōʻakahi, ʻAukake 16, 2021, e hoʻopuka ana i nā kahawai pele a me nā ao kinoea mai ka lalo o ka mauna ma ka mokupuni nui o Java, e holo ana ma 3,5, 2 mau mile (XNUMX mile).

Hiki ke lohe ʻia ka halulu ʻana o ka lua pele he mau kilomita mai ka mauna ʻo Merapi, a ʻo ka lehu pele i hū mai ka lua pele aia ma kahi o 600 mika (kokoke 2000 kapuaʻi) ke kiʻekiʻe. Ua uhi ʻia ka lehu i nā kaiāulu kokoke, ʻoiai ua paʻa mau ke kauoha hoʻokuʻu kahiko ma kahi kokoke i ka lua, no laila ʻaʻohe poʻe i hōʻike ʻia.

Ua ʻōlelo ka luna o ka Yogyakarta Volcanic and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center, ʻo Hanik Humeda, ʻo kēia ka exhalation nui loa mai ka mauna ʻo Merapi mai ka wā i hoʻokiʻekiʻe ai nā luna i ka pae pōʻino i Nowemapa i ka makahiki i hala.

Ua manaʻo ʻia ka nui o ka dome komohana hema he 1,8 miliona cubic mika (66,9 miliona cubic feet) a me ke kiʻekiʻe ma kahi o 3 mika (9,8 kapuaʻi). A laila hāʻule hapa ia i ke kakahiaka Pōʻakahi, e hū ana i nā kahe pyroclastic mai ka ʻaoʻao komohana hema o ka mauna a ʻelua paha.

I ka lā, ʻelua mau mea liʻiliʻi ʻē aʻe o nā mea pyroclastic i hū ʻia, e iho ana ma kahi o 1,5 kilomita (1 mile) ma ka pali komohana hema. Aia kēia mauna he 2.968 mika (9.737 kapuaʻi) ma kahi kokoke i Yogyakarta, he kūlanakauhale kahiko me ka heluna o nā haneli haneli ma ka moku nui o Java Island. No nā kenekulia, ʻo ke kūlanakauhale ke kikowaena o ka moʻomeheu Javanese a me kahi noho o ka ʻohana aliʻi.

Ua mau ke kūlana makaʻala o Merapi ma ka lua o nā pae pōʻino ʻehā mai kona hoʻomaka ʻana e pele i ka mahina o Nowemapa i hala, a ʻaʻole i hoʻokiʻekiʻe ʻia e ka Indonesian Geological and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation Center me ka piʻi ʻana o ka hana.

Lana koʻu manaʻo ma kēia ʻike e hiki ai iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i ka mauna Merapi a me kona ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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E waiho i kāu manaʻo

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.