ʻO ke kiʻi o ka lua ʻeleʻele i kā mākou galaxy

kiʻi o ka lua ʻeleʻele i loko o kā mākou galaxy

ʻEkolu makahiki i hala aku nei, ua kāhāhā ka poʻe ʻepekema ʻepekema o Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) i ka honua me ke kiʻi mua o kahi lua ʻeleʻele i hopu ʻia ma ka galaxy M87 kokoke. I kēia manawa, ua hōʻike mua ka hui like i nā hōʻike ʻike maka o me ke kiʻi mua o ka lua ʻeleʻele i kā mākou galaxy, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā ʻike mai kahi pūnaewele puni honua o nā telescope radio.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi mākou iā ʻoe pehea i loaʻa ai kahi kiʻi o ka lua ʻeleʻele i kā mākou galaxy a he aha nā hopena.

E kiʻi i kahi kiʻi o ka lua ʻeleʻele i kā mākou galaxy

sagittarius a

ʻO kēia ʻo Sagittarius A*, kahi kumu hoʻoheheʻe nui e loli mau ana. Ua hoʻohana ka poʻe ʻepekema i nā algorithms no nā makahiki e kūkulu hou i kona hoʻololi ʻana i ka manawa me he "kiʻiʻoniʻoni" ia, akā. ua lanakila lakou i keia manawa a ua hana i ko lakou mau kii malie.

Ma waho aʻe o kahi pūʻulu o nā pepa i paʻi ʻia ma kahi paʻi kūikawā o The Astrophysical Journal Letters, ua wehe ka Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration Team i ka milestone i kēia lā ma ke ʻano o nā hālāwai kūkā nūhou honua a puni ka honua.

"ʻO kēia ke kiʻi mua o Sagittarius A *, ka lua ʻeleʻele nui ma ke kikowaena o ka Milky Way, ʻo ia ka 4 miliona manawa ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o ka Lā. Hāʻawi mākou i ka hōʻike ʻike maka mua o ko lākou ola ʻana, "wahi a Sara Issaoun, ʻo Harvard Astrophysicist A Center Research Fellow, e kamaʻilio ana ma ke keʻena ʻo European Southern Observatory (ESO) ma Munich, Kelemānia.

Ua hāʻawi nā hopena i nā hōʻike nui he lua ʻeleʻele ka mea a hāʻawi i nā hōʻailona koʻikoʻi e pili ana i ka hana ʻana o kēia mau hōkū nunui, i manaʻo ʻia aia ma ke kikowaena o ka hapa nui o nā galaxies.

Wahi a nā mea ʻepekema ʻoi aku ma mua o 300 mai nā kikowaena 80 i komo i ka ʻike, ʻo ka lua nui "kaumaha" ma kahi o 4 miliona mau nui o ka lā, ma kahi ʻāina ʻaʻole nui aʻe ma mua o kā mākou ʻōnaehana solar. 27.000 mau makahiki māmā mai ko kākou honua. Mai ko mākou hiʻohiʻona, ʻo ia ka nui o ka donut ma ka mahina ma ka lewa.

ʻike maka mua

kiʻi o ke kiʻi o ka lua ʻeleʻele o kā mākou galaxy

ʻO ke kiʻi kahi nānā lōʻihi i ka mea nui ma ke kikowaena o kā mākou galaxy. Ua ʻike nā kānaka ʻepekema nā hōkū e ʻōpuni ana i kekahi mau mea nui loa, paʻa, ʻike ʻole ʻia i waenakonu o ke Ala Milky. Hōʻike ikaika kēia ʻo ke kino lani ʻo Sadge A* he lua ʻeleʻele.

ʻOiai ʻaʻole hiki iā mākou ke ʻike i ka lua ʻeleʻele ponoʻī no ka mea he pōʻeleʻele loa, ʻo ke kinoea ʻālohilohi e hoʻopuni ana iā ia e hōʻike i kahi hiʻohiʻona ʻokoʻa: kahi ʻāpana ʻeleʻele waena (i kapa ʻia ʻo ke aka) i hoʻopuni ʻia e kahi ʻano apo mālamalama. Hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka ʻike hou i ka mālamalama i pio ʻia e ka umekaumaha ikaika o ka lua ʻeleʻele.

"Pīhoihoi mākou i ka nui o ke apo i kūlike me nā wānana o ka manaʻo nui o Einstein o ka relativity," wahi a Geoffrey Bower, ka mea ʻepekema nui o ka papahana EHT ma ka Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei. "ʻO kēia mau ʻike i ʻike ʻole ʻia e hoʻomaikaʻi nui i ko mākou ʻike i nā mea e hana nei ma ke kikowaena o kā mākou galaxy a hāʻawi i nā ʻike hou i ka pili ʻana o nā lua ʻeleʻele nunui me ko lākou kaiapuni".

ʻO ka nānā ʻana i kahi mea mamao e pono ai kahi telescope honua, ʻoiai ʻaneʻane a like paha, a ʻo ia ka mea e hiki ai i ka EHT ke hoʻokō. Aia i loko o ʻewalu mau telescope lekiō ma Chile, ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Mekiko, Sepania a me ka Pole Hema. Ma USA, hoʻohana ʻia e ka European Southern Observatory (ESO) a me nā hoa pili honua ʻē aʻe ma ka wao nahele ʻo Atacama ma Chile, ma ʻEulopa ke kū nei ka Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) ma Sierra Nevada (Granada).

Ua nānā ka EHT iā Sagittarius A* no kekahi mau pō, e hōʻiliʻili ana i ka ʻikepili no nā hola, e like me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā hōʻike lōʻihi ma kahi pahu pahu. Ma waena o nā telescopes lekiō e hana ana i ka EHT, ka IRAM antenna o ʻO 30 mika ka lōʻihi i hana koʻikoʻi i ka nānā ʻana, hiki ke loaʻa nā kiʻi mua.

Ma o kahi ʻenehana i kapa ʻia he interferometry hōʻike lōʻihi loa (VLBI, e hoʻohana ana i nā hana makemakika ma mua o nā lens), ua hui pū ʻia nā hōʻailona mai nā telescope radio a pau a ua hoʻoponopono ʻia kā lākou ʻikepili e nā algorithms a me nā supercomputers e kūkulu hou i ke kiʻi maikaʻi loa.

ʻO Thalia Traianou, he mea noiʻi ma ka Andalusian Institute of Astrophysics (IAA-CSIC), hoʻohui: "E ʻae ka ʻenehana iā mākou e kiʻi i nā kiʻi hou o nā lua ʻeleʻele a me nā kiʻiʻoniʻoni."

ʻElua lua ʻeleʻele like

Milky Way

E pili ana i ke kiʻi o ka lua ʻeleʻele i ka galaxy M87 i lawe ʻia i ka makahiki 2019, ua ʻae nā ʻepekema he ʻano like loa nā lua ʻeleʻele ʻelua, ʻoiai ʻo ka lua ʻeleʻele i kā mākou galaxy. ʻoi aku ia ma mua o 1000 mau manawa liʻiliʻi a ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o M87*, ʻo ia ka 55 miliona mau makahiki māmā.. He 6.500 biliona lā ka nui o ka hōkū nunui a he 9.000 biliona kilomika ke anawaena, ʻo ia hoʻi, e komo ka ʻōnaehana solar a hiki i Neptune.

"He ʻelua mau ʻano galaxies ʻokoʻa loa mākou a me ʻelua mau ʻāpana ʻokoʻa loa o nā lua ʻeleʻele, akā ma kahi kokoke i nā kihi o kēia mau lua ʻeleʻele, ʻano like loa lākou," wahi a Sera Markoff, ka luna hoʻomalu o ke Kōmike ʻEpekema EHT a me ke kaukaʻi o theoretical astrophysics. ma ke Kulanui o Amsterdam. Hōʻike kēia iā mākou e hoʻokele ana ka relativity maʻamau i kēia mau mea i kahi kokoke, a ʻo nā ʻokoʻa a mākou e ʻike mamao aku ai ma muli o nā ʻokoʻa o ka mea e puni ana i ka lua ʻeleʻele. »

ʻO kēia ka wehewehe ʻana iā Roberto Emparan, ka physicist theoretical a me ICREA ma ka Institute of Cosmology o ke Kulanui o Barcelona, ​​​​i ka SMC Sepania: "I kēia manawa, hiki iā mākou ke ʻōlelo i ka like ʻana o ke kiʻi o M87 * mai 2019 a ke kiʻi o kēia manawa mai kahi SgrA * e hōʻike ana, me ka nānā ʻole i ka nui o ka lua ʻeleʻele, ua like loa ke kaiapuni kokoke loa i ka lua eleele. E haʻi hou mai nā ʻike e hiki mai ana iā mākou e pili ana i nā waiwai o ka mea e puni ana i ka lua ʻeleʻele, a hiki paha iā mākou ke haʻi inā ʻo ia ka mea i wānana ʻia e Einstein, a i ʻole he 'imposter' a i ʻole 'copycat'.

ʻO Gonzalo J. Olmo, ke kaukaʻi o ke Keʻena o Theoretical Physics a me ka IFIC o ka Hybrid Center o ke Kulanui o Valencia a me ka CSIC, a me Diego Rubiera-García, ka mea noiʻi Talent o ke Keʻena ʻo Theoretical Physics o ke Kulanui Complutense o Madrid. "ʻOiai he kaukani ka nui o kēia mea ma mua o nā mea i ʻike ʻia i kēia lā i ka Milky Way, ʻo kona ʻano like me kā mākou 'liʻiliʻi' ʻeleʻele e hōʻike ana i ka laulā o ka physics e wehewehe ana i kēia mau mea", koʻikoʻi lākou iā SMC Sepania.

Eia naʻe, ʻoi aku ka paʻakikī o nā hopena o kēia lā ma mua o M87*, ʻoiai ua kokoke ʻo Sagittarius A*. Pono ka hui e hoʻomohala i nā mea hana hou e wehewehe ai i ka neʻe ʻana o ke kinoea a puni Sgr A*. ʻOiai ʻo ka M87* he lens maʻalahi a paʻa, aneane like nā kiʻi a pau, ʻaʻole ʻo Sgr A*.

"Ke neʻe nei ke kinoea kokoke i ka lua ʻeleʻele i ka wikiwiki like, kokoke e like me ka māmā, kokoke iā Sagittarius A * a me M87 *," wehewehe ʻo EHT ʻepekema ʻo Chi-kwan Chan o ka Steward Observatory a me ka Department of Astronomy and Data. ʻO Arizona, ʻoiai ʻo ke kinoea e lawe i nā lā a i nā pule e hoʻopololei i ka M87 * nui, ʻo ka Sagittarius A * liʻiliʻi loa e hoʻopau i kahi orbit i nā minuke.

"'O ia ho'i, ke loli wikiwiki nei ka olinolino a me ke kumu o ke kinoea a puni Sagittarius A* i ka hui pu ana o ka EHT e nana ia. ʻano like ia me ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e kiʻi i ke kiʻi akaka o kahi ʻīlio e alualu wikiwiki ana i kona huelohoomau aku la ia.

ʻO ke kiʻi puka ʻeleʻele Sgr A* ka awelika o nā kiʻi like ʻole i unuhi ʻia e ka hui, a hōʻike hope loa i ka hōkū nunui ma ke kikowaena o ka Milky Way no ka manawa mua.

Manaʻolana wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou e pili ana i nā kiʻi i hopu ʻia o ka lua ʻeleʻele i kā mākou galaxy.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.