Altai Massif

Kaulana ʻo Altai massif no nā kahakai

I kēia lā e kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana i kekahi o nā pae mauna ma ke kikowaena o Asia i kaulana loa no kahi e like me Russia, Kina, Mongolia a me Kazakhstan. ʻO kāna e pili ana Altai massif. No ka mauna mauna ʻo Altai a hui pū nā kahawai ʻo ʻIrtish, ʻObi a me Yenisei. He ʻāina piha i nā kaʻao a me nā kaʻao i hoʻoili ʻia mai kēlā hanauna i kēia hanauna. Ma hope o ka manawa ua lilo ia i ʻāina kahi i hiki ai i ke kūlohelohe ke hōʻike i nā mea āpau i hiki iā ia.

No laila, e hoʻolaʻa mākou i kēia ʻatikala e haʻi iā ʻoe i nā ʻano āpau, ka hoʻokumu a me ke kumu o ka Altai massif.

Nā kuhikuhi nui

Altai massif

He mahele lehulehu ia e waiho nei ma kahi pae mauna ma waena o ʻAsia a ma kahi e hui ai ʻo Russia, Mongolia, Kina a me Kazakhstan. Nui nā steppes, nā mānoanoa liga taiga a me kahi hoʻonani wao nahele haʻahaʻa. Piʻi kēia mau mea āpau i ka nani kupapaʻu o nā piko hau me ka nani laconic o ka tundra. ʻO ka hoʻonohonoho o nā kaiaolaola e kū nei i kēia wahi e nani loa ai ka wahi. Ma hope o ka manawa ua lilo ia i wahi kaulana loa no ka poʻe mākaʻikaʻi e hele huakaʻi.

He wahi kēia e kolo ai aneane 2000 mau kilomita mai ka ʻākau komohana a i ka hikina hema. No laila, hana ʻo Altai Massif i palena palena ma waena o nā steppes maloʻo o Mongolia a me ka taiga waiwai o ka hema o Siberia. Hoʻokumu nā ʻāpana ʻāina ʻelua i nā ʻano ʻāina o ke ʻano kamahaʻo. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ka ʻokoʻa ʻokoʻa o nā lauhulu e kū nei ma ka Altai massif me he mea lā e huli ana mākou ma o nā ʻaoʻao o nā puke kālaihonua atlas.

ʻAʻole wale ka nani o ka ʻāina i hiki i ke kanaka ke kipa iā ia, ʻo ia ka pūnana o nā mea kanu a me nā holoholona.

Ke kumu o ka Altai massif

kuahiwi altai

E ʻike ana mākou i ke kumu o kēia mau mauna i loaʻa ai a me ka evolution i loko o nā makahiki. Hiki ke hoʻihoʻi ʻia ke kumu o kēia mau kuahiwi i nā mana tectonic e kū nei ma muli o nā tectonics papa. ʻIke mākou i ka neʻe mau ʻana o nā papa tectonic ma muli o ke kahe o ka ʻahu o ka Honua. ʻAe kēia i nā pā e kuʻi a hoʻoulu i nā pae kuahiwi hou. I kēia hihia, hiki ke ʻike ʻia ke kumu o ka Altai massif ma o nā ikaika tectonic collision ma waena o India ma ʻAsia.

Aia kekahi ʻōnaehana hewa nui e holo ana ma o kēia wahi āpau a Ua kapa ʻia ka hewa o Kurai a me kekahi hewa o Tashanta. Kuhi kēia ʻōnaehana holoʻokoʻa i ka pahu i ka ʻano o ka neʻe ʻana o ka neʻe ʻana, e hana tectonically i nā pā. ʻO ka neʻe ʻana o nā pōhaku i kū i ka Altai massif pili like i nā pōhaku granite a me nā metamorphic. Ua hoʻokiʻekiʻe ʻia kekahi o kēia mau pōhaku ma kahi kokoke i ka ʻāpana hewa.

Ke kumu o ka inoa o ka Altai massif hele mai mai Mongolia "Altan", ʻo ia hoʻi "gula". Hele mai kēia inoa mai ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o kēia mau kuahiwi he momi maoli ia e pīhoihoi ai i kekahi no ka ʻokoʻa a me ka nani.

ʻIkepili palapala o ka Altai massif

mauna mauna nani hiʻona

Ke hele nei mākou i ka hema o Siberia kahi he ʻekolu mau kuahiwi nui kahi e kū ai nā kuahiwi ʻo Altai, he panalāʻau kupaianaha ia e like me nā ʻano kūlohelohe maoli. ʻO kēia mau kahakai kahi home o ka piko kiʻekiʻe loa ma nā wahi āpau o ka hema o Siberia i kapa ʻia ʻo Mount Beluja. He kiʻekiʻe kona o 4506 mau mika a ʻike ʻia nō ia no kahi e waiwai ana i nā metala. Ma nā kuahiwi o Siberia hema ua hānau ʻia ia mai nā muliwai nui loa ma ka ʻaoʻao hikina o Lūkia.

Aia ka Altai Massif ma waenakonu o ʻAsia, ma waena o 45 ° a me 52 ° latitu ʻĀkau a ma waena o 85 ° a me 100 ° longitude Hikina o Greenwich, a aia ma waena o nā panalāʻau Lūkia, Kina a me Mongolian. ʻO nā ʻano o ke kōkua i kēia manawa nā nā piko, nā wahi kaulike ʻole i nā kiʻekiʻe like ʻole, nā palaka a me nā awāwa hohonu. ʻO kēia mau kōkua āpau ka hopena o kahi evolution geological paʻakikī. A ʻo ia ma ka hopena o ke au Mesozoic i hoʻokumu ʻia nā kuahiwi kahiko e ka pelu Hercynian a hoʻohuli piha ʻia i peneplain.

I ke Tertiary, ʻo ka pelu alpine ka mea i hoʻoulu hou i nā kuahiwi holoʻokoʻa, haʻihaʻi a wehe ʻana i nā palaka like ʻole. Ua hana ʻia kēia hoʻoulu hou ʻana i kahi ala nāwaliwali i ka Quaternary i ka manawa like i hana ai nā kahawai a me nā glaciers i kahi hana erosive ikaika.

Ka aniau a me nā mea ola

E kālailai ana mākou i nā mea nui o ke aniau a me nā mea ola o ka Altai massif. Ma muli o ka latitude a me ke kūlana i waenakonu o ka ʻāina nui Eurasia, ka Altai massif He aniau paʻakikī kona me ke ʻano akahai a me ka ʻaʻano Continental. ʻAʻole lawa kona ua a me ke kauwela. Pili pū ke kiʻekiʻe me ke aniau. ʻO ka kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o ka wela o ka makahiki ke ʻano he waiwai ma waena o 35 kekelē me nā mahana ma lalo o 0 kekelē i ka hoʻoilo a me kahi kauwela pōkole e hiki ai iā ia ke ʻoi aku i nā 15 kekelē.

Hoʻolālā kēia aniau i nā mea ulu e pane iā ia. ʻO nā ululāʻau Coniferous, nā lau nahele a me nā mea kanu o nā kaha steppe ikaika e ulu i ka Altai nui, kokoke i ka wao akua ʻo Gobi. Ma lalo o ka manaʻo 1830 mika, ulu lāʻau nā mauna i nā lāʻau kedera, nā larches, nā pine a me nā birch. Ma waena o ka ululāʻau a me ka hoʻomaka o ka hau ke kiʻekiʻe ma kahi o 2400-3000 mau mika o ke kiʻekiʻe. Loaʻa nā hānai Alpine ma kēia wahi.

Pili ka ʻāpana mauna holoʻokoʻa o ka Altai massif ma muli o ke ʻano o ka laina hoʻokaʻawale ma waena o nā kahawai e hele ana i ka Moana Pākīpika a me kēlā mau kahawai e kahe ana i loko o ka Moana Kahakaha ʻArctic. ʻElua mau muliwai nui i ʻike ʻia ma ʻAsia āpau i loaʻa i kēia kumu. ka ʻObi a me ka Yenisei. ʻOiai kēia, ʻo ka pūnaewele hydrographic maoli o kēia wahi āpau i hana ʻia me nā kahawai mai nā loko mai a e noho ana i nā cacque glacial. Kūleʻa ʻole kāna papa mai ke ʻano o ke kuahiwi e hana pēlā.

Lana koʻu manaʻo me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i ka Altai massif, kona mau ʻano a me kona kumu.

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