In the field of geology and geography we have the concept of Geographic accident. It is also known by the name of landform. It is a characteristic that we find on the earth's surface that is part of the land. Mountains, hills, mushrooms and plains are the 4 main types of landforms that we find on our planet. These landforms are known by the name of geographical feature.
In this article we are going to tell you everything you need to know about what a landform is, its characteristics and importance.
There are forms of major and minor reliefs. The minor landforms are those fashions, canyons, valleys and basins. When we analyze landforms we see that they can exist both under water and on the earth's surface. And it is that under the water mountain ranges and basins are also formed. In science, this type of relief is also studied underwater to know the morphology of the ocean floor.
A landform is a characteristic geomorphological unit of the earth's surface. Each of the elements that are part of the relief has a certain shape throughout the planet. A landform is a unit that belongs to the morphology of the earth and that includes all the different forms of land that we can observe on the planet. They are geographical features that have different elements and thanks to this we can identify them through observation.
Landform and types
Let's see what are the main types of landforms that exist:
- Plain: It is a large expanse of woolen land with slight undulations. When the undulations exceed an altitude it is no longer considered a plain. Large areas of land and unique vegetation and fauna.
- Mountain ranges: they are a set of mountains that are intertwined with each other. They usually form an ecosystem as a whole that has characteristics that allow the development of life adapted to it.
- Montana: when we see that a terrain rises more than 700 meters from its base, it is considered a mountain.
- Cliff: they are higher coasts that fall to the sea by elevation of the land. It usually has a steep and very steep slope. If the slope is less steep it is not a cliff.
- Archipelago: They are a group of islands that are close to each other. It also has a maximum distance that can exist between island and island so that they form the archipelago as a whole.
- Bahía: it is the entrance of the sea on the coast. There are areas of the planet where the entrance of the sea is much more pronounced than in others. Well this entry of the sea can be caused by the exit of the land surface towards the sea or vice versa.
- Delta: It is an island at the mouth of the rivers due to an accumulation of sediments. Fluvial courses, mainly rivers, carry sediment along the flow. It is then when the altitude and the slope decrease and the sediments are deposited forming these small islands that we know as delta.
- Desert: it is an arid terrain that lacks vegetation due to the lack of rain and the excess of erosion.
- Abroad: it is a marshy terrain that fills with rainwater. Normally a soil is loaded with organic matter and contains a large amount of moisture. In times of drought, these soils crack due to lack of moisture.
- Estuary: it is the mouth of a river. There are different morphologies to define estuaries depending on the flow of the river. Rivers that are very wide have larger estuaries. These estuaries are usually rich in nutrients, making them excellent for breeding fish species.
- Island: It is a piece of land that is surrounded by water on all sides. If only part of it is not surrounded by water, it is considered a peninsula.
- Lagos: it is a layer of water of variable depth. They tend to have stratified water depending on the water regime. If the water is stationary, it is possible that different entire layers are generated, which are the thermocline. This is nothing more than a layer where the temperature remains stable over the entire surface.
- Ocean: It is a vast expanse of salty water that is found covering most of the surface of the earth. Although we call the world's oceans by their different names, they are nothing more than the same water that covers most of the earth.
- Plateau: it is a flat surface within a mountainous summit. It must be taken into account that for a plateau to exist there must be a mountain that has eroded over the years. It is as if a plain existed on top of a mountain. I hope that with this information you can learn more
Formation and importance of the landform
Let's see what the process of formation of the different geographical features. Most of them tend to be formed by plate tectonics. This means that the tectonic plates of which the earth's surface is composed will shift because of the convection currents of the earth's mantle. This collision that exists between the tectonic plates are what cause the existence of the geographical accident. Erosion and sedimentation are geological processes that affect landforms that produce changes and alter their forms.
It should also be added that some biological processes and factors can also influence the formation of geographical features. For example, various biological factors come to affect the morphology of dunes, corals, algae and reefs. Over time, These biological factors are transforming into modifying the shape of various geographical features.
Let's see what the importance of the geographical accident has. Most of them are of vital importance to people, towns and communities. And this over important grows of human resources, tourist attractions, historical interest and natural barrier that causes and the shape of the different types of climate. There are mountains with high altitude that completely modify the climate of the entire surrounding area. Being a source of natural resources for human beings, it is also economical. There are some economically rich places thanks to the presence of a landform.
I hope that with this information you can learn more about what a landform is and its characteristics.