I-Pangea

umhlaba wonke ndawonye

Ezikhathini zakudala amazwekazi ayengahlelwanga njengoba enziwa namuhla. Ekuqaleni kwakho konke kwakukhona izwekazi elilodwa kuphela elenza indawo enkulu yomhlaba. Leli zwekazi labizwa I-Pangea. Yayikhona ngesikhathi sePaleozoic esedlule futhi Mesozoic ekuseni. Lesi sikhathi cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-335 edlule kwenzeka. Kamuva, cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-200 eyedlule, lo mhlabathi omkhulu waqala ukwahlukana ngokuhamba kwamapuleti we-tectonic futhi wahlukanisa amazwekazi njengoba sazi namuhla.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngePangea, ukuvela kwayo nokubaluleka kwayo.

Izici eziyinhloko

i-pangea yasemhlabeni

Ingxenye enkulu yaleli zwekazi yayigxile eningizimu yezwe. Okuwukuphela kolwandle olwaluzungezile kwathiwa iPanthalassa. Impilo yasePangea yayihlukile kunanamhlanje. Isimo sezulu sasifudumele futhi impilo yezilwane nezitshalo yayihluke ngokuphelele. Ezinye zezilwane ezaziphila eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-160 lapho leli zwekazi lalikhona kwakungu-traversodontids kanye ne-Shringasaurus indicus. Lezi yizilwane ezibonakala ngokuba nezimpondo ezimbili zangaphambili nobude bomzimba okungaphezulu noma ngaphansi ngamamitha ama-4. Amabhungane okuqala nama-cicadas avele kule ndawo enkulu yezwe. Sekuhlwile vele Isikhathi se-Triassic  lapho izilwane ezinwabuzelayo eziningi zanda. Ama-dinosaurs okuqala akhiwa anyathela iPangea.

Akukho okuningi okwaziwayo ngempilo yasolwandle ngoba izinsalela zemvelo azitholakalanga kangako olwandle iPanthalassa. Kucatshangwa ukuthi ama-ammonoids, ama-brachiopods, izipanji kanye nezibaya kwakuyizilwane ezazikhona ngaleso sikhathi. Futhi ukuthi lezi zilwane ziye zajwayela eminyakeni edlule. Ngokuqondene nezimbali, kwakuyizitho zokuzivocavoca ezazilawula. Lezi zitshalo bezishintsha zonke izitshalo ezikhiqiza inhlamvu.

U-Alfred Wegener noPangea

iphange

Le ndoda yayingusosayensi waseJalimane, umcwaningi, i-geophysicist, isazi sezulu esaziwa ngokuba ngumsunguli wenkolelo Ukukhukhuleka kwezwekazi. Yile ndoda eyaqala ukuhlela imibono yokuthi amazwekazi abe nokunyakaza okuhamba kancane eminyakeni edlule. Le nhlangano ayikaze ime futhi namuhla kuyaziwa ukuthi kubangelwa yimisinga ye-convection engubeni yoMhlaba.

Lo mqondo wokuhamba kwamazwekazi yakhuliswa ngo-1912 kepha ayemukelwa kwaze kwaba ngo-1950, eminyakeni engama-20 ngemuva kokufa kwakhe. Futhi ukuthi izifundo ezahlukahlukene zepaleomagnetism kwakudingeka zenziwe inhloso yazo kwakuwukuhlaziya amandla kazibuthe womhlaba njengamanje esikhathini esedlule. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lolu cwaningo futhi luhlose ukwazi ukuthi kwakukhona kuphi amapuleti ama-tectonic phambilini.

Konke lokhu kwenzeka ngesikhathi u-Alfred Wegener ebheka i-atlas futhi wazibuza ukuthi ngabe imingcele yamazwekazi iyahlangana yini. Yile ndlela abona ngayo ukuthi amazwekazi ake abumbana. Ngemuva kokufunda isikhathi eside wakwazi ukuchaza ubukhona benkanyezi enkulu ayeyiqambe ngokuthi iPangea. Ukwehlukaniswa kwaleli lizwekazi eliphakeme kwakuyinqubo ehamba kancane kakhulu ethathe izigidi zeminyaka futhi yaqala ukuhlukanisa ezinye izingxenye zomhlaba ezazakha amazwekazi ayisithupha anamuhla.

Ukuhlukaniswa kwepuleti le-Tectonic

Kuwo wonke umlando kunososayensi abaningi abake bazama ukuphinda ukuthi ukuhamba kwamazwekazi bekungasuka kanjani esikhundleni sePangea kuze kube namuhla. Kuyaziwa kusuka ezifundweni ezahlukahlukene ukuthi amapuleti ama-tectonic ahamba njalo njengoba etholakala ngaphezu kwendawo ebonakalayo noma ingubo. Lesi sambatho esibucayi sihambisana nezinto zokwenziwa kwengubo yasemhlabeni. Le mizila yokuhlangana yengubo idala ukufuduka kwamazwekazi ngenxa yokuhamba kwenqwaba yabantu ngenxa yokwehluka kobuningi. Kutholakale futhi lapho kunezimo lapho amapuleti ephuka futhi ahlukane ngokushesha okukhulu.

Olunye ucwaningo luveze ukuthi ukwehlukaniswa kwamapuleti etektoni kwenzeka ezigabeni ezimbili. Isigaba sokuqala lapho kubonakala khona ukuhamba kwamazwekazi. Okwesibili kulapho, ngemuva kwezigidi zeminyaka yokwelula, amapuleti ancipha kakhulu, angene, ahlukane, avumele amanzi olwandle angene phakathi kwawo.

Impilo ngaphambi kukaPangea yayihluke ngokuphelele. Izwekazi nempilo akuvelanga ngaleli lizwekazi. Ngaphambi kwalokho kwakukhona amanye amazwekazi afana neRodinia, Columbia nePannotia. Emininingwaneni elinganiselwe, uRodinia wayekhona eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-1,100 edlule; I-Columbia phakathi kweminyaka eyizigidi eziyi-1,800 kanye ne-1,500 eyedlule futhi iPannotia inemininingwane enembile. Lokhu kuhamba kwamazwekazi kukhombisa ukuthi kungakapheli izigidi zeminyaka ukwabiwa komhlaba kuzohluka kunalokho okukhona njengamanje. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi umhlaba uhamba njalo. Kuliqiniso ukuthi ukwabiwa kwamazwekazi kwakuhluke ngokuphelele phakathi kwezigidi zeminyaka.

Ngenkathi iPangea iveza iGondwana neLaurasia kwasogwini lokuqala kwaqhamuka i-Atlantic ne-Indian Ocean. Ulwandle olwahlukanisa lezi zingxenye zomhlaba ezimbili lwalubizwa ngokuthi yiTethys.

IPangea, eyedlule neyesikhathi esizayo

ngaphambili namanje

Yize impilo ngokuzayo izohluka, ubuchwepheshe busivumela ukuthi siphinde sisebenzise ukuthi umhlaba wethu uzobukeka kanjani eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-250. Yilesi sikhathi lapho kucatshangwa ukuthi kuzoba noshintsho olukhulu futhi sekubhabhadiswe igama likaPangea Ultima noma uNeopangea.

Konke lokhu kungukucabanga nje, izincazelo ziyaqhubeka zenziwe ososayensi abafunde ukuhamba kwamapuleti ama-tectonic iminyaka eminingi. Uma umhlaba ungatholi mthelela kuma-asteroid, esinye isenzeko esingaguqula ngokuphelele umhlaba wonke womhlaba, kucatshangwa ukuthi kuncane kakhulu oLwandlekazi i-Atlantic oluzosala ngoba uquqaba lwamazwekazi luzophinde lubuyele endaweni yezwekazi elikhulu.

I-Afrika nayo ilinganiselwa ukushayisana neYurophu ne-Australia izothuthela enyakatho ukuze igcine ngokujoyina izwekazi lase-Asia. Lokho wukuthi, iplanethi yethu izoba yinto efana nokuthi yayinjani eminyakeni ecishe ibe yizigidi ezingama-335 edlule.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngePangea nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.