OKUKHULU: Abososayensi beMega Earthquake Babikezela eCalifornia

Iphutha leSan Andrés California

ISan Andreas Fault, eCalifornia

"Omkhulu", lelo igama esetshenziswa ngokwethukela phakathi kwezingxoxo zabantu baseCalifornia, Oregon naseWashington. Futhi kusuka esifundazweni sesifundazwe saseCanada saseBrithani Columba. NgeBig One basho ukuzamazama komhlaba lokho kulindeleke ukuthi zenzeke endaweni engaphansi kweCascadia. Kuyiphutha lasolwandle elingamakhilomitha ayi-1100 ubude. Ngokufana, futhi kulokhu eCalifornia, kukhona nephutha elikhulu laseSan Andrés ka-1300km. Lokhu kudlula esifundazweni saseCalifornia e-United States naseBaja California eMexico.

Ososayensi balindele futhi banethemba lokuthi noma yiluphi usuku lungenzeka. Amanye amaphephandaba kule minyaka edlule ahlaselwe yizindaba ngokuzamazama komhlaba okusondelayo. Iqiniso ukuthi akukwazi ukucacisa kahle ukuthi kungenzeka nini, kepha ukuvumelana kokuthi kuzokwenzeka kucishe kube ngokuphelele. Kuyathenjwa ukuthi ungaqhamuka kunoma iyiphi indawo. Imiphumela ingaba yinhlekelele.

Bekungaba kukhulu kangakanani ukuzamazama komhlaba kwe- "Big Big"?

tsunami igagasi elikhulu lolwandle

Kulindelwe ubukhulu obulingana noma bungaphezulu kuka-8 esikalini sikaRichter. Ukuqonda ubukhulu bokuzamazama komhlaba, singadonsa umtapo wezincwadi omncane wephephandaba, futhi sibheke ukuzamazama komhlaba okwenzeke kulawo makhulu aphakeme kakhulu. Kumele izibonelo ezimbalwa, esisodwa sazo esashaya iJapan ngo-2011. Ukwehliswa kwePacific Plate ngaphansi kwe-Okhotsk Plate kudale ukuthi kube ne-tsunami yesikali esingu-9,2 eRichter, ne-tsunami eyafika ogwini. Ihlale imizuzu engu-6, ibinokujula okungama-29km, iphutha lidaleke ngo-500km ubude no-200km ububanzi, nokuhamba okuqondile kwamamitha angama-20. Kamuva kwalandelwa ukuzamazama komhlaba okunamandla amakhulu eJapane okungu-8,1.

Uma kubhekwa ubukhulu bephutha leSan Andrés noma indawo engaphansi kweCascadia, kulula ukucacisa ukuthi ubukhulu bokuthi ukuzamazama komhlaba okwedlula lokhu okuchazwe ososayensi bekungeke kwenzeke. Ngokusho kwezibalo ezenziwe, indawo yase ICascadia, izokhiqiza i-tsunami yamahora ayi-12 lokho kwakuzofika kudlule. Ingaphakamisa isisindo esiphindwe izikhathi ezi-2 kunaleso esanyakaziswa yi-tsunami yaseChile yango-2010.

Isikali sikaRichter

Ukuzamazama komhlaba eSan Francisco 1906

Ukuzamazama komhlaba kweSan Francisco kowe-1906. Ubukhulu obuphakathi kuka-7,9 no-8,6

Imiphumela ejwayelekile esingayithola ngokobungako bayo ileyo echazwe ngezansi. Kodwa-ke, kubalulekile ukucabangela izici ezithile. Imiphumela abazoba nayo emhlabeni ayincikile nje kuphela kubukhulu, kodwa futhi nebanga elisuka enkabeni yenhlabathi, ukujula, indawo okugxilwa kuyo kanye nezimo zezwe lokwakheka komhlaba. Kwezinye bangakhulisa amandla okuzamazama komhlaba.

Ubukhulu 2,0 noma ngaphansi: Incane. Imiphumela yayo ayibonakali. Kukhona cishe ama-80.000 ngosuku.

Ubukhulu 2,0 kuye ku-2,9: Ngaphansi. Azikwazi ukubonwa ngokujwayelekile. Kukhona cishe i-1.000 nsuku zonke.

Ubukhulu 3,0 kuye ku-3,9: Ngaphansi. Imvamisa iyabonakala, kepha imvamisa ayinabungozi. Kukhona cishe ama-49.000 ngonyaka.

Ubukhulu 4,0 kuye ku-4,9: Khanyisa. Ukunyakaza okwenzayo nomsindo, kepha ngomonakalo omncane. Cishe i-6.200 ngonyaka.

Ubukhulu 5 kuye ku-5,9: Maphakathi. Lolu hlobo lokuzamazama komhlaba lungalimaza izakhiwo ezibuthakathaka nezakhiwo ezingakhiwe kahle. Kukhona cishe ama-800 ngonyaka.

Ubukhulu 6 kuye ku-6,9: Kuqinile. Ingabhubhisa izindawo ezinabantu abaningi kuze kufike kumamayela ayi-160 nxazonke. Kulezi cishe zingu-120 ngonyaka.

Ubukhulu 7 kuye ku-7,9: Ephakeme. Umonakalo abangawenza mkhulu kakhulu ezindaweni ezinkulu. Cishe i-18 ikhiqizwa minyaka yonke.

Ubukhulu 8 kuye ku-8,9: Kukhulu. Lapha sesivele sikhuluma ngeMega Terremos noma iMega Seísmos. Izindawo zokulimaza zingamakhulu ambalwa km. Kukhona ngezikhathi ezithile phakathi kuka-1 no-3 ngonyaka.

Ubukhulu 9 kuye ku-9,9: Kukhulu. Iyakhathaza ezindaweni eziyizinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamakhilomitha. Imvamisa yayo ingu-1 noma 2 njalo eminyakeni engama-20.

Ubukhulu 10: I-Apocalyptic. Akukaze kuqoshwe emlandweni wethu futhi awekho amarekhodi.

Ukwesaba Okukhulu Kwamuva

Yellowstone

Isonto eledlule ukuzamazama komhlaba eningizimu ye-US kwavusa uBig One. Bekukhona abasebenzisa inethiwekhi abaze bathi kungadala ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo i-Yellowstone. Iziphathimandla zibhalise imibiko engu-11.000 5 yabantu abathintekile. Isikhukhula sokuzamazama komhlaba okungu-4, okube nokuzamazama okuningana okungu-9, kwenzeke ngamakhilomitha ayisishiyagalolunye eningizimu-mpumalanga yeLincoln.

Ukwazi indawo enkulu esentaba-mlilo nokuzamazama komhlaba okuyiCalifornia, phambi kwesipoki esesabekayo seBig One, noma yikuphi ukungahambi kahle kusikisela ukuthi kungenzeka ngokushesha. Ukuphela kwento engashiwo ngayo ukuthi kuzokwenzeka. Ukwazi ukuthi kunini okuthile okukhona emqondweni wawo wonke umuntu.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.