Izinhlobo zemithala

izinhlobo zemithala

Indawo yonke esiyaziyo inobukhulu obukhulu futhi awukho kuphela umthala esihlala kuwo. Kunemithala eminingi futhi ayifani yonke. Kunemithala enezinhlobonhlobo nobukhulu obuhlukahlukene, kusukela emidondoshiya kuya emifushane. U-Edwin Hubble wenza ukuhlukaniswa kwemithala ngo-1936 ukuze kukwazi ukuhlukanisa okuhlukile izinhlobo zemithala ngokwezimo zazo nokubukeka kwazo. Konke lokhu kuhlukaniswa kunwetshiwe ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, kepha kuze kube namuhla kusasebenza.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zemithala ezikhona nokuthi yiziphi izici zazo eziyinhloko.

Ukuhlukaniswa kwezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zemithala

ukuhlukaniswa komthala

Imithala ihlukaniswa ngezinhlobo ezahlukene. Singabona izinhlobo eziyinhloko zemithala efana ne-elliptical, lenticular, spiral, and irregular. Njengoba u-Edwin Hubble ayecabanga ukuthi kukhona ukuvela nokuthuthuka kwemithala kusuka emaphikweni ayizindilinga ayindilinga futhi kusukela kulokhu kuya emikhawulweni, wenza lokho okwaziwa ngokuthi ukulandelana kukaHubble. Njengoba imithala yohlobo olungalinganiyo ingalingani neminye, ayingene kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lokulandelana.

Siyazi ukuthi umthala uyinhlangano noma into eyinhlanganisela eyakhiwa inani elikhulu lezinkanyezi nodaba lwenkanyezi olubanjwe ndawonye omunye nomunye ngesenzo sabo samandla adonsela phansi. Ngokuba nesenzo sayo samandla adonsela phansi ezintweni ezakha i-galaxy zihlala zodwa emkhathini. Kunemithala elinganiselwa ezigidini eziyizinkulungwane eziyikhulu endaweni yonke eyaziwayo. Kodwa-ke, impela leli nani liyakhula ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngenxa yokuthuthuka kobuchwepheshe. Lonke leli nani lemithala liqoqwe laba ngamaqoqo ngokuvamile.

Siyazi ukuthi IMilky Way ikhaya lethu futhi ezinye izinkanyezi eziyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-200 futhi yiyo enikeza lo mthala igama layo.

Izinhlobo zemithala

izinkanyezi

Sizohlukanisa izinhlobo ezahlukene zemithala ekhona bese sibala izici zazo eziyinhloko.

Imithala ye-Elliptical

Yakheke njenge-ellipse futhi ingaba ne-eccentricity enkulu noma encane. Imvamisa imithala lokho Babizwa ngohlamvu u-E olulandelwa inombolo ehamba phakathi kuka-0 no-7. Inombolo yethulwe ukuthi ikwazi ukukhomba isibindi sokuqina somthala. Lezi zinhlobo zemithala zihlukaniswe zaba izinhlobo ezi-8 ezihlukene eziqanjwe ngo-E0 kuye ku-E7. Kungashiwo ukuthi owokuqala cishe uyindilinga futhi akanakho ukwehluka, kuyilapho owokugcina enokubukeka okuphezulu nokubukeka okuvulekile.

Imithala eyindilinga inegesi encane kakhulu nothuli futhi akukho lutho oluphakathi kwezinkanyezi. Njengoba kunezinkanyezi ezincane ezimbalwa, eziningi zalezi zinkanyezi zindala. Cishe iningi lazo lizungeza i-nucleus ngendlela exakile nengahleliwe. Singathola izinhlobonhlobo zamasayizi kusuka kwesikhulu kuya kwesincane. Imithala emikhulu kunayo yonke iyindilinga kusukela, lapho imithala ichanyuselwa isihlanganile yakha imithala emikhulu ye-elliptical.

Imithala yamaLente

izinhlobo zemithala nokuhlukaniswa

Uhlobo olulodwa kuphela lwemithala oluhlukaniswe phakathi kwama-ellipticals nemiklamo ejikelezayo. Zilawulwa yi-nucleus ecishe ibe yindilinga eyenziwe ngezinkanyezi ezindala, njengoba kunjalo ngama-ellipticals. Futhi banediski lezinkanyezi negesi elibazungezile njengemiklamo ejikelezayo. Kepha ayinazo izingalo ezijikelezayo. Ayinayo i-interstellar ethe xaxa futhi ayikho enye inkanyezi yokwakhiwa okusha.

Imithala ye-lenticular ingaba ne-nucleus eyindilinga engaphezulu noma encane noma ibhande lezinkanyezi elilodwa noma elilodwa. Uma sinohlobo lomthala we-lenticular ovinjelwe ubizwa nge-SO futhi uma kuvinjelwe imithala ye-lenticular ibizwa nge-SOB.

Imithala evuthayo

Lezi zinhlobo zemithala zakhiwa yishawa lezinkanyezi ezindala. Lo mongo une idiski ejikelezayo yezinkanyezi nezinto eziningi eziphakathi kwezinkanyezi lokho kuzungeza le nucleus yezinkanyezi ezindala. Idiski ejikelezayo yezinkanyezi yaziwa ngokuthi yakhiwa izingalo ezijikelezayo ezisuka enkabeni yenhliziyo. Kulezi zingalo sinezinkanyezi zombili ezincane, izinkanyezi eziqonde ngqo ngokulandelana okuyinhloko. Lezi zingalo yizo ezenza lolu hlobo lomthala lubizwe ngokuvunguza.

Izingalo ezijikelezayo zinezinkanyezi eziqhubekayo zokwakheka. Uma sihlaziya i-disk singathola ukuthi kukhona i-halo enamaqoqo we-globular nezinkanyezi ezihlakazekile zezinhlobo ezahlukene. Phakathi kwazo sithola izinkanyezi ezindala. Lolu hlobo lomthala luqokelwa ngohlamvu S lulandelwe olunye uhlamvu oluncane olungaba u-b, c noma u-d. Lokhu kuyehluka kuye ngosayizi nokubukeka komongo nezingalo. Uma sithatha i-galaxy Sa sizobona ukuthi zine-nucleus enkulu ngosayizi maqondana nezingalo. Lezi zingalo zizothola i-nucleus iqine njengoba nazo zincane.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinemithala ye-Sd ene-nucleus encane kodwa enezingalo ezinkulu ezihlakazeke kakhulu. Ezinhlotsheni eziningi zemithala evunguza singabona ezinhlangothini zombili ze-nucleus ibha eqondile okuvela kuyo izingalo ezijikelezayo. Lolu hlobo lomthala, njengalolo oludlule, lwaziwa ngokuthi imithala evinjelwe evinjelwe. Imvamisa abasho lutho nge-SB nencwadi njengaleyo edlule. Le nhlanganisela yezinhlamvu inencazelo efanayo nemiklamo engavinjelwe.

Imithala engavamile

Njengoba sishilo phambilini, imithala engajwayelekile ayinaso isakhiwo noma ukulinganisa okuchaziwe. Ngakho-ke, kunzima kakhulu ukukungenisa kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lokulandelana komthala. Azinawo umumo okweqanda futhi futhi azinwebeki ukulingana kwami ​​kulandelana kweHubble. Yimithala emincane enenqwaba yegesi yezinkanyezi nothuli.

Ukuqanjwa kwamagama abo kukhethwe i-Irr futhi bahlukaniswa ngezinhlobo ezimbili. Uhlobo lwe-Irr I noma iMagellanic kanye ne-Irr II. Ezokuqala zitholakala kakhulu futhi zenziwe ngezinkanyezi ezindala ezinokukhanya okuphansi kakhulu. Le mithala ayinayo i-nucleus. Lezi zokugcina zisebenza kakhulu futhi zakhiwa izinkanyezi ezincane. Imvamisa zakhiwa ukuxhumana phakathi kwamandla adonsela phansi emithala esondele kakhulu. Kungenzeka futhi ukuthi zivela ekushayisaneni kwemithala emibili.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezinhlobo zemithala.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.