IMilky Way

Umthala esihlala kuwo ubizwa ngokuthi yiMilky Way.  Impela ubuvele ukwazi lokho.  Kepha wazi kangakanani ngalomthala esihlala kuwo?  Kunezigidi zezici, izifiso namakhona ezenza iMilky Way ibe ngumthala okhethekile.  Yikhaya lethu lasezulwini phela, ngoba kulapho iSolar System nawo wonke amaplanethi esiwaziyo atholakala.  Umthala esihlala kuwo ugcwele izinkanyezi, i-supernovae, i-nebulae, amandla, nezinto ezimnyama.  Kodwa-ke, kunezinto eziningi ezisalokhu ziyimfihlakalo kososayensi.  Sizokutshela izinto eziningi nge-Milky Way, kusuka kuzici zayo kuya ekuthandeni nasezimfihlakalweni.  Iphrofayili yeMilky Way Lona ngumthala owenza ikhaya lethu endaweni yonke.  I-morphology yayo ifana kakhulu nokuvuthwa ngezingalo eziyinhloko ze-4 kudiski yayo.  Yakhiwa yizigidigidi zezinkanyezi zazo zonke izinhlobo nosayizi.  Enye yalezo zinkanyezi iLanga.  Kungenxa yeLanga ukuthi sikhona futhi impilo seyakhiwe njengoba sazi.  Isikhungo senkanyezi sisendaweni yeminyaka yokukhanya engama-26.000 ukusuka kwiplanethi yethu.  Akwaziwa ngokuqinisekile ukuthi kungaba nokuningi yini, kepha kuyaziwa ukuthi okungenani umgodi owodwa we-supermassive maphakathi neMilky Way.  Umgodi omnyama uba maphakathi nomthala wethu futhi ubizwe ngeSagittarius A.  Umthala wethu waqala ukwakha cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-13.000 edlule futhi uyingxenye yeqembu lemithala engama-50 eyaziwa njengeLocal Group.  Umthala wethu oseduze, obizwa nge-Andromeda, nawo uyingxenye yaleli qembu lemithala emincane ehlanganisa neMagellanic Clouds.  Kusengukuhlukaniswa okwenziwe ngumuntu.  Uhlobo oluthi, uma uhlaziya umongo wendawo yonke nokunwetshwa kwalo, akulutho.  Iqembu Lasekhaya okukhulunywe ngalo ngenhla ngokwalo liyingxenye yomhlangano omkhulu kakhulu wemithala.  Ibizwa ngokuthi i-Virgo supercluster.  Igama lomthala wethu liqanjwe ngebhande lokukhanya esingalibona ngezinkanyezi namafu egesi anwebeka ngaphezu kwesibhakabhaka sethu ngoMhlaba.  Yize uMhlaba ungaphakathi kwe-Milky Way, asikwazi ukuqonda ngokuphelele ngobunjalo bomthala njengoba ezinye izinhlelo zezinkanyezi ezingaphandle zingenza.  Ingxenye enkulu yomthala ifihlwe ungqimba lothuli oluphakathi kwezinkanyezi.  Lolu thuli aluvumeli izibonakude ezibonakalayo ukuba zigxile kahle futhi zithole okukhona.  Singakwazi ukunquma ukwakheka ngokusebenzisa izibonakude ezinamagagasi omsakazo noma nge-infrared.  Kodwa-ke, asikwazi ukwazi ngokuqiniseka okuphelele ukuthi yini esifundeni lapho kutholakala khona uthuli lwe-interstellar.  Singabona kuphela izinhlobo zemisebe ezingena ezintweni ezimnyama.  Izici eziyinhloko Sizohlaziya kancane izici eziyinhloko zeMilky Way.  Into yokuqala esizoyihlaziya ubukhulu.  Ibunjwe njengomoya ovinjelwe futhi inobubanzi beminyaka yokukhanya eyi-100.000-180.000.  Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, ibanga eliya maphakathi nomthala lilinganiselwa eminyakeni engama-26.000 yokukhanya.  Leli banga yinto abantu abangasoze bakwazi ukuhamba nayo isikhathi sokuphila nobuchwepheshe esinabo namuhla.  Iminyaka yokwakheka ilinganiselwa eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-13.600, cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-400 ngemuva kweBig Bang (isixhumanisi).  Isibalo sezinkanyezi lo mthala onaso kunzima ukubalwa.  Asikwazi ukuhamba ngamunye ngamunye sibala zonke izinkanyezi ezikhona, ngoba akusizi kakhulu ukwazi kahle.  Kunezinkanyezi ezibalelwa ezigidini ezingama-400.000 eMilky Way kuphela.  Okunye okuthandekayo lo mthala onakho ukuthi ucishe ube yicaba.  Abantu abaphikisana ngokuthi uMhlaba uyisicaba bayoziqhenya ngokuthi nalokhu kunjalo.  Futhi ukuthi umthala ungobubanzi beminyaka yokukhanya eyi-100.000 1.000 kepha ubukhulu bokukhanya buyiminyaka eyinkulungwane kuphela.  Kunjengokungathi kuyidiski eyisicaba futhi esontekile lapho amaplanethi efakwe khona ezingalweni zegesi nothuli ezisontekile.  Okuthile okufana nalokhu yisimiso sonozungezilanga, iqembu lamaplanethi nothuli neLanga esikhungweni kwagxilisa iminyaka engama-26.000 yokukhanya ukusuka esikhungweni esinenkathazo somthala.  Ngubani owathola iMilky Way?  Kunzima ukwazi ngokuqinisekile ukuthi ngubani othole iMilky Way.  Kuyaziwa ukuthi uGalileo Galilei (isixhumanisi) wayengowokuqala ukubona ukuthi kukhona iqembu lokukhanya emthaleni wethu njengezinkanyezi ngazinye ngonyaka we-1610.  Lokhu kwaba wuvivinyo lokuqala lwangempela olwaqala lapho isazi sezinkanyezi sikhomba isibonakude saso sokuqala esibhakabhakeni futhi sabona ukuthi umthala wethu wakhiwa izinkanyezi ezingenakubalwa.  Ngasekuqaleni kuka-1920, u-Edwin Hubble (isixhumanisi) nguyena owanikeza ubufakazi obanele bokwazi ukuthi ama-nebulae wokuvunguza esibhakabhakeni empeleni ayemithala yonke.  Leli qiniso lasiza kakhulu ekuqondeni ubunjalo bangempela beMilky Way.  Lokhu kusizile nokuthola usayizi weqiniso nokwazi isilinganiso sendawo yonke esigxile kuyo.  Asinaso isiqiniseko ngokuphelele ukuthi iMilky Way inezinkanyezi ezingaki, kodwa futhi akujabulisi kangako ukwazi.  Ukuzibala kungumsebenzi ongenakwenzeka.  Izazi zezinkanyezi zizama ukuthola indlela engcono yokwenza.  Noma kunjalo, izibonakude zingabona kuphela inkanyezi eyodwa ekhanya kunezinye.  Izinkanyezi eziningi zifihlwe ngemuva kwamafu kagesi nothuli esikhulume ngalo ekuqaleni.  Enye yezindlela abazisebenzisayo ukulinganisa inani lezinkanyezi ukubuka ukuthi izinkanyezi zizungeza ngokushesha kangakanani emthaleni.  Lokhu kukhombisa amandla adonsela phansi nobukhulu.  Ukwehlukanisa ubukhulu bomthala ngosayizi omaphakathi wenkanyezi, sizoba nempendulo.

Umthala esihlala kuwo ubizwa ngokuthi IMilky Way. Impela ubuvele ukwazi lokho. Kepha wazi kangakanani ngalomthala esihlala kuwo? Kunezigidi zezici, izifiso namakhona ezenza iMilky Way ibe ngumthala okhethekile. Kuyikhaya lethu lasezulwini phela, njengoba kulapho i Uhlelo lomkhathi Futhi wonke amaplanethi siyawazi Umthala esihlala kuwo ugcwele izinkanyezi, i-supernovae, i-nebulae, amandla kanye indaba emnyama. Kodwa-ke, kunezinto eziningi ezisalokhu ziyimfihlakalo kososayensi.

Sizokutshela izinto eziningi nge-Milky Way, kusuka kuzici zayo kuya ekuthandeni nasezimfihlakalweni.

Iphrofayili yeMilky Way

Ububanzi beMilky Way

Imayelana nomthala owakha ikhaya lethu endaweni yonke. I-morphology yayo ifana kakhulu nokuvuthwa ngezingalo eziyinhloko ze-4 kudiski yayo. Yakhiwa yizigidigidi zezinkanyezi zazo zonke izinhlobo nosayizi. Enye yalezi zinkanyezi yiLanga. Kungenxa yeLanga ukuthi sikhona futhi nempilo yakhiwe njengoba sazi.

Isikhungo senkanyezi sisendaweni yeminyaka yokukhanya engama-26.000 ukusuka kwiplanethi yethu. Akwaziwa ngokuqinisekile ukuthi kungaba nokuningi yini, kepha kuyaziwa ukuthi okungenani umgodi owodwa we-supermassive maphakathi neMilky Way. Umgodi omnyama uba maphakathi nomthala wethu futhi ubizwe ngeSagittarius A.

Umthala wethu waqala ukwakheka cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-13.000 edlule futhi iyingxenye yeqembu lemithala engama-50 eyaziwa njengeQembu Lasendaweni. Umthala wethu oseduze, obizwa nge-Andromeda, nawo uyingxenye yaleli qembu lemithala emincane, ehlanganisa neMagellanic Clouds. Kusengukuhlukaniswa okwenziwe ngumuntu. Uhlobo oluthi, uma uhlaziya umongo wendawo yonke nokunwetshwa kwalo, akulutho.

Iqembu Lasekhaya okukhulunywe ngalo ngenhla ngokwalo liyingxenye yomhlangano omkhulu kakhulu wemithala. Ibizwa ngokuthi i-Virgo supercluster. Igama lomthala wethu liqanjwe ngebhande lokukhanya esingalibona ngezinkanyezi namafu egesi anwebeka ngaphezu kwesibhakabhaka sethu ngoMhlaba. Yize uMhlaba ungaphakathi kwe-Milky Way, asikwazi ukuqonda ngokuphelele ngobunjalo bomthala njengoba ezinye izinhlelo zezinkanyezi ezingaphandle zingenza.

Ingxenye enkulu yomthala ifihlwe ungqimba lothuli oluphakathi kwezinkanyezi. Lolu thuli aluvumeli izibonakude ezibonakalayo ukuba zigxile kahle futhi zithole okukhona. Singakwazi ukunquma ukwakheka ngokusebenzisa izibonakude ezinamagagasi omsakazo noma nge-infrared. Kodwa-ke, asikwazi ukwazi ngokuqiniseka okuphelele ukuthi yini esifundeni lapho kutholakala khona uthuli lwe-interstellar. Singabona kuphela izinhlobo zemisebe ezingena ezintweni ezimnyama.

Izici eziyinhloko

Isikhundla somhlaba emthaleni

Sizohlaziya kancane izici eziyinhloko zeMilky Way. Into yokuqala esizoyihlaziya ubukhulu. Ibunjwe njengomoya ovinjelwe futhi inobubanzi beminyaka yokukhanya eyi-100.000-180.000. Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, ibanga eliya maphakathi nomthala cishe liyiminyaka engu-26.000 yokukhanya. Leli banga yinto abantu abangasoze bakwazi ukuhamba nayo isikhathi sokuphila nobuchwepheshe esinabo namuhla. Iminyaka yokwakheka ilinganiselwa eminyakeni eyi-13.600 billion, cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-400 ngemuva kwe- Big Bang.

Isibalo sezinkanyezi lo mthala onaso kunzima ukubalwa. Asikwazi ukuhamba ngamunye ngamunye sibala zonke izinkanyezi ezikhona, ngoba akusizi kakhulu ukwazi kahle. Kunezinkanyezi ezibalelwa ezigidini ezingama-400.000 eMilky Way kuphela. Okunye okuthandekayo lo mthala onakho ukuthi ucishe ube yicaba. Abantu abaphikisana ngokuthi uMhlaba uyisicaba bayoziqhenya ngokuthi nalokhu kunjalo. Futhi ukuthi umthala ungobubanzi beminyaka yokukhanya eyi-100.000 1.000 kepha ubukhulu bokukhanya buyiminyaka eyi-XNUMX XNUMX kuphela.

Kunjengokungathi kuyidiski eyisicaba futhi esontekile lapho amaplanethi efakwe khona ezingalweni zegesi nothuli ezisontekile. Okuthile okunjalo yisimiso sonozungezilanga, iqembu lamaplanethi nothuli neLanga esikhungweni lagxilisa iminyaka engama-26.000 yokukhanya ukusuka esikhungweni esishubile somthala.

Ngubani owathola iMilky Way?

umthamo wezinkanyezi

Kunzima ukwazi ngokuqinisekile ukuthi ngubani othole iMilky Way. Kuyaziwa lokho UGalileo Galilei waba ngowokuqala ukubona ukuba khona kweqembu lokukhanya emthaleni wethu njengezinkanyezi ngazinye ngonyaka we-1610. Lokhu kwaba wuvivinyo lokuqala lwangempela olwaqala lapho isazi sezinkanyezi sikhomba isibonakude saso sokuqala esibhakabhakeni futhi sabona ukuthi umthala wethu wakhiwa izinkanyezi ezingenakubalwa.

Ngasekuqaleni kuka-1920, U-Edwin hubble kwaba yilowo owanikeza ubufakazi obanele bokwazi ukuthi ama-nebulae wokuvunguza esibhakabhakeni empeleni ayemithala yonke. Leli qiniso lasiza kakhulu ekuqondeni ubunjalo bangempela beMilky Way. Lokhu kusizile nokuthola usayizi weqiniso nokwazi isilinganiso sendawo yonke esigxile kuyo.

Asinaso isiqiniseko ngokuphelele ukuthi iMilky Way inezinkanyezi ezingaki, kodwa futhi akujabulisi kangako ukwazi. Ukuzibala kungumsebenzi ongenakwenzeka. Izazi zezinkanyezi zizama ukuthola indlela engcono yokwenza. Kodwa-ke, izibonakude zingabona inkanyezi eyodwa ekhanya kakhulu kunezinye. Izinkanyezi eziningi zifihlwe ngemuva kwamafu kagesi nothuli esikhulume ngalo ekuqaleni.

Enye yezindlela abazisebenzisayo ukulinganisa inani lezinkanyezi ukubuka ukuthi izinkanyezi zizungeza ngokushesha kangakanani emthaleni. Lokhu kukhombisa amandla adonsela phansi nobukhulu. Ukwehlukanisa ubukhulu bomthala ngosayizi omaphakathi wenkanyezi, sizoba nempendulo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeMilky Way nemininingwane yayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.