Izinhla Zomhlaba

izingqimba zomhlaba

Manje njengoba sesiyazi ifayili le- izingqimba zomkhathi, kuyithuba lapho izingqimba zomhlaba. Kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo bekuhlale kufunwa ukuchaza lokho esinakho ngezansi Ukuqhuma komhlaba. Avelaphi amaminerali? Zingaki izinhlobo zamatshe akhona? Iziphi izingqimba iplanethi yethu enazo? Kuningi okungaziwa okwenziwe kuwo wonke umlando futhi esifuna ukwazi ngakho.

Ingxenye yeGeology efunda ukwakheka nezingqimba ezahlukahlukene zoMhlaba yi I-Geodynamics yangaphakathi. Iplanethi yethu yakhiwe yizinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinto ezenza ukuthi kube nokuphila eMhlabeni. Lezi zinto ezintathu yilezi: Okuqinile, uketshezi kanye namagesi. Lezi zinto zitholakala ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zomhlaba.

Kunezindlela eziningi zokuhlukanisa izingqimba zomhlaba. Kolunye uhlobo lokuhlukaniswa babizwa ngemikhakha. Lokhu kufaka phakathi umkhathi, i-hydrosphere ne-geosphere. Yi-geosphere eqoqa konke ukwakheka nezendlalelo ezahlukahlukene zangaphakathi iplanethi yethu enazo. Izendlalelo zihlukaniswe kabili: Ingaphandle nengaphakathi. Ngokwethu, sizogxila ezingxenyeni zangaphakathi zomhlaba, okungukuthi, ubuso bomhlaba buzoba ukuqala.

Izingqimba zomhlaba

Ukuqala ukuchaza izingqimba zoMhlaba, kufanele senze umehluko emibili. Okokuqala, kusungulwa umbandela wokwakhiwa kwamakhemikhali ezingqimba ezihlukile zomhlaba. Uma sicabanga ngokwakhiwa kwamakhemikhali, siyathola Uqweqwe lomhlaba, ingubo kanye nomgogodla. Ucingo Imodeli emile. Omunye umbandela ubheka izakhiwo ezibonakalayo zezendlalelo ezishiwo noma obizwa nangokuthi imodeli yokuziphatha komshini. Phakathi kwabo, siyathola i-lithosphere, i-asthenosphere, i-mesosphere ne-endosphere.

Kepha sazi kanjani ukuthi ungqimba luqala noma luphela kuphi? Ososayensi bathole izindlela ezahlukahlukene zokuthola uhlobo lwento kanye ne ukwahlukaniswa kwezendlalelo ngokuyekiswa. Lokhu kungasasebenzi kuyizindawo zezingqimba zangaphakathi zoMhlaba lapho uhlobo lwento leyo ungqimba lwenziwe ngayo ngezinguquko ngokungazelelwe, okungukuthi, ukwakheka kwalo kwamakhemikhali, noma isimo lapho izakhi zitholakala khona (kusuka kokuqinile kuya kuketshezi).

Okokuqala, sizoqala ukuhlukanisa izingqimba zomhlaba kusuka kumodeli yamakhemikhali, okungukuthi, izingqimba zomhlaba zizoba: Uqweqwe, isembatho kanye nomgogodla.

Incazelo yezingqimba zomhlaba

Izendlalelo Zomhlaba kusuka kumodeli yokwakheka kwamakhemikhali

Ukuqhuma komhlaba

Uqweqwe Lomhlaba ungqimba olukha phezulu kakhulu loMhlaba. Inobuningi obumaphakathi obungu-3 gr / cm3 futhi iqukethe kuphela 1,6% wawo wonke umthamo womhlaba. Uqweqwe lomhlaba luhlukaniswe izingxenye ezimbili ezinkulu, ezihlukaniswe kahle: Uqweqwe lwamazwekazi kanye noqweqwe lwasolwandle.

Ukuqhuma kwezwekazi

Uqweqwe lwamazwekazi luyajiya futhi lunesakhiwo esiyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe. Kubuye kube amagxolo amadala kunawo wonke. Imele ama-40% womhlaba. Yakhiwe ungqimba oluncane lwamadwala ase-sedimentary, phakathi kwawo ubumba, amatshe esanti kanye namatshe amatshe amatshe amatshe ahlukile. Futhi banamadwala acebile e-silica acebile njenge-granite. Njengokulangazelela, kusezimbokodweni zesigaxa sezwekazi lapho ingxenye enkulu yemicimbi yokwakheka komhlaba eyenzekile kuwo wonke umlando woMhlaba iqoshwe. Lokhu kungaziwa njengoba amadwala enezinguquko eziningi zomzimba nezamakhemikhali kuwo wonke umlando. Isibonelo, lokhu kubonakala ezikhungweni zezintaba lapho singathola khona amatshe asendulo kakhulu angafinyelela ku-lIminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-3.500 XNUMX.

Izingxenye zoqweqwe lomhlaba

Uqweqwe lwasolwandle

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinoqweqwe lwasolwandle. Inobukhulu obuphansi nesakhiwo esilula. Yakhiwe izendlalelo ezimbili: ungqimba oluncane kakhulu lwenhlabathi nolunye ungqimba olunama-basalts (angamadwala anentaba-mlilo). Lesi sigaxa sincane ngoba kukwazile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ama-basalts aqhubeka akhiwa futhi abhujiswe, ngakho-ke amadwala oqweqwe lwasolwandle amadala kune azidluli eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-200.

Ekupheleni koqweqwe lomhlaba ukuphela kokuqhubeka I-Mohorovicic (Isikhunta). Lokhu kungasasebenzi yikho okuhlukanisa uqweqwe lomhlaba nengubo. Itholakala cishe ngamakhilomitha angama-50 ukujula.

Isakhiwo soqweqwe lwezwekazi nolwandle

Uqweqwe lwasolwandle luncane kunolwezwekazi

Ingubo kaMhlaba

Ingubo yoMhlaba ingenye yezingxenye zomhlaba ezisukela phansi koqweqwe ziye engxenyeni engaphandle. Iqala ngemuva nje kokuyekiswa kweMoho futhi iyi- ungqimba olukhulu kunawo wonke emhlabeni. Kuthiwani Ama-82% wawo wonke umthamo womhlaba nama-69% awo wonke ubukhulu bawo. Engubeni umuntu angahlukanisa, yena, izingqimba ezimbili zihlukaniswe ngu Ukuyeka kwesibili kukaRepetti. Lokhu kungasasebenzi kungamakhilomitha angama-800 ukujula futhi yikho okwehlukanisa ingubo engenhla kwesingezansi.

Engubeni ephezulu sithola ifayela le- "Isendlalelo D". Lesi sendlalelo sitholakala ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi kwamakhilomitha angama-200 futhi sibonakala ngokuthi I-5% noma i-10% yayo incibilikile kancane. Lokhu kubangela ukuthi ukushisa kukhuphuke kusuka enkabeni yomhlaba eceleni kwengubo. Njengoba ukushisa kukhuphuka, amatshe asembatho ayafudumala futhi kwesinye isikhathi angakhuphukela phezulu bese enza izintaba-mlilo. Lokhu kuyabizwa "Izindawo ezishisayo"

Isakhiwo sengubo yangaphandle nengaphakathi yoMhlaba

Ukwakheka kwengubo kungaziwa ngalezi zivivinyo:

  • Ama-meteorite ezinhlobo ezimbili: Eyokuqala yakhiwa yi-peridotites nezinsimbi.
  • Amadwala akhona ebusweni bomhlaba kusuka engubeni asuswa ayiswe ngaphandle ngenxa yokuhamba kwamathoni.
  • Izishimula zentaba-mlilo: Ziyizimbobo eziyindilinga zokujula okukhulu lapho i-magma ivuke khona futhi yaziveza Kungaba ngamakhilomitha angama-200 ubude.
  • Ukuhlolwa okunciphisa amagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba lapho edlula engutsheni ekhombisa ukuthi kukhona ushintsho lwesigaba. Ukuguqulwa kwesigaba kuqukethe ukuguqulwa kwesakhiwo samaminerali.

Ekupheleni kwengubo yomhlaba siyathola Ukuyeka kukaGutenberg. Lokhu kuqhubeka kwehlukanisa ingubo kumbindi womhlaba futhi kutholakala cishe ngamakhilomitha angama-2.900 XNUMX ukujula.

Ingqikithi Yomhlaba

Ingqikithi yoMhlaba iyindawo engaphakathi impela yoMhlaba. Kusuka ekuyekisweni kukaGutenberg kuye maphakathi noMhlaba. Kuyinto sphere ukuthi has a engaba 3.486 km, ngakho has a volume of 16% wengqikithi yoMhlaba. Ubukhulu bayo bungu-31% wengqikithi yomhlaba ngoba yakhiwe ngezinto eziwugqinsi kakhulu.

Embindini amandla kazibuthe womhlaba akhiqizwa ngenxa yemigudu yokudlulisa amanzi yengqimba engaphandle encibilikisiwe ingaphakathi lengaphakathi, eliqinile. Inamazinga okushisa aphakeme kakhulu aseduze I-5000-6000 degree centigrade nezingcindezi ezilingana ne- umkhathi osisigidi esisodwa kuya kweziyisithupha.

Ukushisa kwebanga lezendlalelo zomhlaba

Ithempelesha ibanga ekujuleni

Umnyombo woMhlaba uhlukaniswe ngomgogodla wangaphakathi nangaphandle kanti umehluko unikezwa ngu ukuqedwa kwe-Wiechert kwesibili. Umgogodla ongaphandle usukela ebangeni elingamakhilomitha angu-2.900 5.100 kuya kwangu-XNUMX XNUMX futhi usesimeni esincibilikile. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ingqikithi yangaphakathi isuka ku- ukujula okungu-5.100 km ukuya enkabeni yoMhlaba cishe ngama-6.000 km futhi kuqinile.

Ingqikithi yomhlaba yakhiwe ikakhulu ngensimbi, ine-5-10% nickel nengxenye ephansi yesibabule, i-silicon ne-oxygen. Izivivinyo ezisiza ukwazi ulwazi lokwakheka kwe-nucleus yilezi:

  • Izinto eziminyene kakhulu, isibonelo. Ngenxa yobukhulu babo obukhulu bahlala enkabeni engaphakathi yoMhlaba.
  • Ama-meteorite ensimbi.
  • Ukushoda kwensimbi ngaphandle koqweqwe lomhlaba, okusitshela ukuthi i-ayoni kumele igxishwe ngaphakathi.
  • Ngensimbi engaphakathi kwe-nucleus, kwakheka amandla kazibuthe woMhlaba.

Lokhu kuhlukaniswa kususelwe kumodeli ebheka ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zomhlaba kanye nezinto ezakha izingqimba zomhlaba. Manje sizokwazi ukwahlukaniswa kwezendlalelo zomhlaba kusuka khombisa iphuzu lokubuka ngokuziphatha kwalo ngomshini, okungukuthi, kusukela kuzakhi zayo ezibonakalayo zezinto eziyibhalayo.

Izingxenye zomhlaba ngokuya ngemodeli yokulungisa

Kule modeli, izingqimba zomhlaba zihlukaniswe zaba: I-Lithosphere, i-asthenosphere, i-mesosphere ne-endosphere.

I-Lithosphere

Ungqimba oluqinile olunayo cishe u-100 km ubukhulu okubandakanya uqweqwe noqweqwe oluningi lwengubo engenhla. Lolu ungqimba oluqinile kusendlalelo se-lithospheric esizungeze umhlaba.

I-Asthenosphere

Ungqimba lweplastiki oluhambisana nengubo enkulu engenhla. Kuyo ikhona imibukiso ye-convection futhi kuhamba njalo. Kubaluleke kakhulu kuma-tectonics. Lokhu kuhamba kubangelwa yi-convection, okungukuthi, izinguquko kokuminyana kwezinto.

I-Mesosphere

Itholakala ekujuleni kwe- 660 km no 2.900 km. Kuyingxenye yengubo engezansi nengxenye yengqimba engaphandle yoMhlaba. Ukuphela kwayo kunikezwa ukuyeka okwesibili kwe-Wiechert.

I-Endosphere

Iqukethe ingqikithi yangaphakathi yoMhlaba echazwe ngenhla.

Amamodeli wesakhiwo nezendlalelo zomhlaba

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, ososayensi bebefunda ingaphakathi loMhlaba ngokusebenzisa izivivinyo nobufakazi obuhlukahlukene ukuze bafunde kabanzi nangaphezulu ngeplanethi esiphila kuyo. Ukwenza ukuqhathanisa ukuthi kuncane kangakanani esikwaziyo ngengaphakathi leplanethi yethu, kufanele sibone uMhlaba ngeso lengqondo sengathi yi-apula. Yebo, ngakho konke esesithuthuke ngakho kwezobuchwepheshe, ucwaningo olujulile olutholakele lube khona cishe ngamakhilomitha ayi-12 ukujula. Ukuqhathanisa iplanethi ne-apula, kufana nokuthi sihlutshiwe nje isikhumba sokugcina salo lonke i-aphula, lapho imbewu yesikhungo ibizolingana nengqikithi yomhlaba.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Ukwakheka koMhlaba

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-2, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   u-alison tatiana parra jaimes kusho

    Kupholile impela, ngumbhalo wezingqimba zenhliziyo zangaphakathi

  2.   Fernando kusho

    Isendlalelo D¨ («ungqimba ophindwe kabili we-D») akuyona i-200 kms UKUJULA, kepha ine-approx. Ama-200 kms WOBUKHULU. Kunolwazi olusebenzayo, kepha lujwayelekile kakhulu, futhi ezimweni eziningi ukungabikho kwemininingwane kuzodida umfundi.

    UNGATHEMBELE KULESI SIHLOKO UKUTHOLA UMSEBENZI NOMA UMSEBENZI.