Izinhla zomkhathi

I-Atmosphere

Umthombo: https://bibliotecadeinvestigaciones.wordpress.com/ciencias-de-la-tierra/las-capas-de-la-atmosfera-y-su-contaminacion/

Njengoba sibonile kokuthunyelwe kwangaphambilini, i- Iphasi Plan Inezendlalelo eziningi zangaphakathi nezangaphandle futhi yakhiwe yizinhlelo ezine ezingaphansi. I- izingqimba zomhlaba zazisezinhlelweni ezingaphansi komhlaba. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sasinakho i-biosphere, leyo ndawo yoMhlaba lapho impilo ikhula khona. I-hydrosphere yayiyingxenye yoMhlaba lapho kukhona khona amanzi. Sinezinye kuphela izinto ezingaphansi komhlaba, umkhathi. Ziyini izingqimba zomkhathi? Ake sikubone.

Umkhathi ungqimba lwamagesi oluzungeze umhlaba futhi olunemisebenzi eyahlukahlukene. Phakathi kwale misebenzi iqiniso lokuthi izindlu inani le-oxygen elidingekayo ukuze uphile. Omunye umsebenzi obalulekile umkhathi onawo ngezidalwa eziphilayo ukusivikela emisebeni yelanga nakwizinto zangaphandle ezivela emkhathini njengamameteorite amancane noma ama-asteroid.

Ukwakheka komkhathi

Umkhathi wakhiwe ngamagesi ahlukene ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene. Iqukethe kakhulu i-nitrogen (78%), Kepha le nitrogen ayithathi hlangothi, okusho ukuthi, siyayiphefumula kodwa asiyihlanganisi noma siyisebenzisele noma yini. Lokho esikusebenzisayo ukuze siphile umoya-mpilo utholakala ku-21%. Zonke izinto eziphilayo emhlabeni, ngaphandle kwezinto ezi-anaerobic, zidinga umoya-mpilo ukuze ziphile. Okokugcina, umkhathi unayo ukuhlushwa okuphansi kakhulu (1%) kusuka kwamanye amagesi afana nomhwamuko wamanzi, i-argon, ne-carbon dioxide.

Njengoba sibonile esihlokweni ku ingcindezi yasemkhathini, umoya uyasinda, ngakho-ke kunomoya omningi ezingxenyeni ezingezansi zomkhathi ngoba umoya ovela phezulu ududula umoya ongezansi futhi uqina ngaphezulu. Kungenxa yalokho 75% wesisindo esiphelele somkhathi kuphakathi kobuso bomhlaba namakhilomitha okuqala ayi-11 ukuphakama. Njengoba sikhula phezulu, umkhathi uba mncane kakhulu futhi unciphe, kepha-ke, ayikho imigqa ephawula izingqimba ezahlukahlukene zomkhathi, kepha ukwakheka nezimo kuyashintsha. Ulayini kaKarman, ecishe ibe ngamakhilomitha ayi-100 ukuphakama, kubhekwa njengokuphela komkhathi womhlaba nokuqala komkhathi ongaphandle.

Ziyini izingqimba zomkhathi?

Njengoba siphawule phambilini, njengoba sikhuphuka, sihlangabezana nezendlalelo ezahlukahlukene umkhathi onazo. Ngayinye inokwakheka kwayo, ukuminyana nokusebenza kwayo. Umkhathi unezingqimba ezinhlanu: I-troposphere, i-stratosphere, i-mesosphere, i-thermosphere, ne-exosphere.

Izendlalelo zomkhathi: I-Troposphere, i-stratosphere, i-mesosphere, i-thermosphere, ne-exosphere

Izendlalelo zomkhathi. Umthombo: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

I-Troposphere

Isendlalelo sokuqala somkhathi yi-troposphere futhi yi- eduze komhlaba ngakho-ke, kuleso sigaba esiphila kuso. Isuka ezingeni lolwandle iye cishe ku-10-15 km ukuphakama. Kuku troposphere lapho impilo iqala khona emhlabeni. Ngaphandle kwetroposphere izimo ungavumeli ukuthuthukiswa kwempilo. Izinga lokushisa kanye nengcindezi yasemkhathini iyancipha kwi-troposphere njengoba sikhulisa ukuphakama esizithola sikuso.

Izimo zezulu njengoba sizazi zenzeka e-troposphere, ngoba ukusuka lapho amafu awakhuli. Lezi zimo zezulu zakhiwa ukushisa okungalingani okubangelwa yilanga ezindaweni ezihlukene zeplanethi. Lesi simo sidala ukuhanjiswa kwemisinga nemimoya, okuhambisana nezinguquko ekucindezelekeni nasekushiseni, kubangela izivunguvungu ezinesiphepho. Izindiza zindiza ngaphakathi kwe-troposphere futhi njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ngaphandle kwe-troposphere azikho amafu, ngakho-ke azikho izimvula noma iziphepho.

I-Troposphere nezimo zezulu

Izimo zezulu zenzeka ku-troposphere lapho sihlala khona. Umthombo: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Engxenyeni ephezulu kakhulu ye-troposphere sithola ungqimba lomngcele olubizwa ngokuthi ukuyeka kancane. Kule ungqimba lomngcele, ithempelesha lifinyelela amanani asezingeni eliphansi kakhulu. Kungakho ososayensi abaningi bebiza lolu ungqimba ngokuthi "Isendlalelo esishisayo" Ngoba ukusuka lapha, umhwamuko we-troposphere awukwazi ukuphakama uye phambili, njengoba ubhajwe lapho ushintsha usuka emswakeni uye eqhweni. Uma kungengenxa yokuma okuthe xaxa, iplanethi yethu ingalahlekelwa amanzi esinawo njengoba ehwamuka futhi ethuthela emkhathini. Ungasho ukuthi i-tropopause iyisithiyo esingabonakali esigcina izimo zethu zizinzile futhi esivumela amanzi ukuthi ahlale etholakala.

I-Stratosphere

Ukuqhubeka nezendlalelo zomkhathi, manje sesithola i-stratosphere. Itholakala kusukela ekunqandeni kwesinye isikhathi futhi isuka ku-10-15 km ukuphakama iye kuma-45-50 km. Izinga lokushisa ku-stratosphere liphakeme engxenyeni engenhla kunasengxenyeni engezansi ngoba njengoba likhuphuka ukuphakama, limunca imisebe yelanga ethe xaxa futhi nezinga lokushisa kwakho liyakhuphuka. Lokho kusho ukuthi, ukusebenza kwamazinga okushisa ukuphakama kuphambene nalokhu ku-troposphere. Iqala ngokuzinza kepha iphansi futhi njengoba ukuphakama kukhuphuka, izinga lokushisa liyanda.

Ukumuncwa kwemisebe ekhanyayo kungenxa ye- ungqimba lwe-ozone okuphakathi kuka-30 no-40 km ukuphakama. Isendlalelo se-ozone simane siyindawo lapho ukugxila kwe-stratospheric ozone kuphakeme kakhulu kunasemkhathini wonke. I-ozone iyini kusivikela emisebeni yelanga eyingoziKepha uma i-ozone ivela ebusweni bomhlaba, kungukungcola okunamandla komkhathi okubangela izifo zesikhumba, zokuphefumula nezenhliziyo.

Isendlalelo se-ozone

Umthombo: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Ku-stratosphere akukho ukunyakaza okuqondile mpo komoya, kepha imimoya evundlile ingafinyelela kaningi u-200 km / h. Inkinga ngalo moya ukuthi noma iyiphi into efinyelela ku-stratosphere isakazeka kuyo yonke iplanethi. Isibonelo salokhu ama-CFC. Lawa magesi akhiwe nge-chlorine ne-fluorine aqeda ungqimba lwe-ozone futhi asakazeka kuyo yonke iplanethi ngenxa yemimoya enamandla evela e-stratosphere.

Ekupheleni kwe-stratosphere ngu ukubamba ibanga. Yindawo yomkhathi lapho ukugxila okuphezulu kwe-ozone kuphela futhi izinga lokushisa lizinze kakhulu (ngaphezulu kwe-0 degrees Celsius). I-stratopause iyona enikeza indlela kwi-mesosphere.

I-Mesosphere

Ungqimba lomkhathi olusuka ku-50 km luye ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi kwe-80 km. Ukuziphatha kwamazinga okushisa ku-mesosphere kuyefana nokwe-troposphere, ngoba kwehla phezulu. Lolu ungqimba lomkhathi, yize kubanda, iyakwazi ukumisa ama-meteorites njengoba ziwela emkhathini lapho zisha khona, ngale ndlela zishiya imikhondo yomlilo esibhakabhakeni sasebusuku.

I-Mesosphere imisa ama-meteorites

Umthombo: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

I-mesosphere ungqimba oluncane kakhulu lomkhathi, kusukela iqukethe kuphela u-0,1% wesisindo somoya esiphelele futhi kuwo kungafinyelelwa amazinga okushisa afinyelela ku -80 degrees. Ukuthinta okubalulekile kwamakhemikhali kwenzeka kule ungqimba futhi ngenxa yobuningi bomoya ophansi, izinxushunxushu ezahlukahlukene zakheka ezisiza imikhumbi-mkhathi lapho zibuyela eMhlabeni, ngoba ziqala ukubona ukwakheka kwemimoya engemuva hhayi kuphela ukubopha kwe-aerodynamic. lomkhumbi.

Ekupheleni kwe-mesosphere ngu i-mesopause. Ungqimba lwemingcele oluhlukanisa i-mesosphere ne-thermosphere. Itholakala cishe ngamakhilomitha angama-85-90 futhi kuwo izinga lokushisa lizinzile futhi liphansi kakhulu. Ukuphendula kwe-Chemiluminescence ne-aeroluminescence kwenzeka kule ungqimba.

I-Thermosphere

Ingqimba ebanzi yomkhathi. Isuka ku- 80-90 km kuya ku-640 km. Kuleli qophelo, awukho nhlobo umoya osele futhi izinhlayiya ezikhona kulolu ungqimba zikhonjiswe ngemisebe ye-ultraviolet. Lolu ungqimba lubizwa nangokuthi umkhathi ngenxa yokushayisana kwama-ion okwenzeka kuyo. I-ionosphere inethonya elikhulu ku ukusakazeka kwamagagasi omsakazo. Ingxenye yamandla akhishwa ngumthumeli oya e-ionosphere imuncwa umoya we-ionized kanti enye ikhonjisiwe, noma iphambukisiwe, ibuyela ebusweni bomhlaba.

Ionosphere namagagasi omsakazo

Izinga lokushisa ku-thermosphere liphakeme kakhulu, lifinyelela kuze kufike ezinkulungwaneni ze-degrees Celsius. Zonke izinhlayiya ezitholakala ku-thermosphere zithweswe kakhulu amandla avela emisebeni yelanga. Sithola nokuthi amagesi awahlakazekile ngokulinganayo njengoba kwenzeka ngezingqimba zangaphambilini zomoya.

Ku-thermosphere sithola i-magnetosphere. Yileso sifunda somkhathi lapho amandla adonsela phansi oMhlaba esivikela khona emoyeni welanga.

Umkhathi

Izingxenye zokugcina zomkhathi yi-exosphere. Lona ungqimba oluqhele kakhulu kunobuso bomhlaba futhi ngenxa yokuphakama kwalo, luyisikhathi esingapheli kunawo wonke futhi ngenxa yalokho ngokwalo alucatshangwa njengongqimba lomkhathi. Okungaphezulu noma okuncane kunwebeka phakathi kwamakhilomitha angama-600-800 ukuphakama kuze kufike ku-9.000-10.000 km. Lolu ungqimba lomkhathi yilokho kwehlukanisa iplanethi enguMhlaba emkhathini futhi kuwo ama-athomu ayaphunyuka. Iqukethe kakhulu i-hydrogen.

Isibhakabhaka kanye nokuqina

Inani elikhulu lokuqina likhona ku-exosphere

Njengoba ubona, izenzakalo ezahlukahlukene zenzeka ezingqimbeni zomkhathis futhi banemisebenzi ehlukile. Kusukela emvuleni, imimoya nezingcindezi, ngokusebenzisa ungqimba lwe-ozone nemisebe ye-ultraviolet, ungqimba ngalunye lomkhathi lunomsebenzi walo owenza impilo emhlabeni njengoba sazi.

Umlando womkhathi

La umkhathi lokho esikwaziyo namuhla bekungakaze kube njalo. Sekudlule izigidi zeminyaka selokhu kwakhiwa iplanethi yoMhlaba kuze kube namuhla, futhi lokhu kudale izinguquko ekwakhekeni komkhathi.

Umkhathi wokuqala woMhlaba owavela wavela emvuleni enkulu nehlala isikhathi eside emlandweni eyakha izilwandle. Ukwakheka komkhathi ngaphambi kokuphila njengoba sazi ukuthi kwavela kwakhiwa ikakhulu yi-methane. Emuva ngaleso sikhathi, kuyenzeka iminyaka engaphezu kwezigidigidi ezi-2.300, izinto eziphilayo ezasinda kulezi zimo zaziphila methanogens nama-anoxicsLokho wukuthi, babengadingi i-oxygen ukuze baphile. Namuhla ama-methanogen ahlala ezindaweni zamachibi noma esiswini sezinkomo lapho kungekho-oxygen. Iplanethi yoMhlaba yayisencane kakhulu futhi ilanga lalingakhanyi kangako, noma kunjalo, ukuhlangana kwe-methane esemkhathini kwakukhona cishe izikhathi eziphindwe ka-600 kunanamuhla ezinokungcola. Lokho kuguqulelwe kumphumela wokushisa okunamandla ngokwanele ukuthi ukwazi ukukhuphula amazinga okushisa omhlaba, ngoba i-methane igcina ukushisa okuningi.

Ama-Methanogens

AmaMethanogens abusa uMhlaba lapho ukwakheka komkhathi bekungu-anoxic. Umthombo: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Kamuva, ngokwanda kwe- i-cyanobacteria ne-algae, iplanethi yagcwala umoya-mpilo futhi yaguqula ukwakheka komkhathi kwaze kwaba, kancane kancane, kwaba yilokho esinakho namuhla. Ngenxa yama-plate tectonics, ukuhlelwa kabusha kwamazwekazi kube nomthelela ekusatshalalisweni kwe-carbonate kuzo zonke izingxenye zomhlaba. Futhi yingakho umkhathi wawuguquka usuka endaweni enciphisayo waba yi-oxidizing. Ukuhlushwa komoya-mpilo bekukhombisa iziqongo eziphakeme neziphansi kuze kube yilapho zihlala zingaphansi kokuhlushwa okuyi-15%.

Isimo sokuqala esakhiwa yi-methane

Isimo sokuqala esakhiwa yi-methane. Umthombo: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-19, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Pedro kusho

    Sawubona, uma i-thermosphere ifinyelela ezinkulungwaneni ze-degrees C. Kungenzeka kanjani ukuthi umkhumbi-mkhathi ubungadlula kuwo?
    Liyini izinga lokushisa ngemuva kwe-thermosphere?
    Ngiyabonga kusengaphambili ngempendulo yakho

  2.   LEONEL VENCE MURGAS kusho

    Pedro .. akekho owake wakwazi ukuphuma!
    Konke kuyindaba amanga amakhulu ... bukela amavidiyo we-iss noma wonke amanga ..
    noma kungcono ubheke izithombe ze-CGI zomhlaba, akukaze kube khona isithombe sangempela futhi akekho noyedwa owake wabona i-satellite ezungezayo .. ake ngikutshele mfowethu .. sikhohlisiwe

  3.   U-Apodemu kusho

    «Ku-thermosphere sithola i-magnetosphere. Yileso sifunda somkhathi lapho amandla adonsela phansi oMhlaba esivikela khona emoyeni welanga. "
    Ngicabanga ukuthi kulo musho kufanele babeke amandla kazibuthe hhayi amandla adonsela phansi.
    Gracias

  4.   Nah kusho

    Ulwazi luhle kakhulu futhi luchazwe kahle kakhulu… ngiyabonga kakhulu… lusizo kakhulu kithina esifundayo ☺

  5.   Nah kusho

    Ngifuna ukuhalalisela abantu / abantu abasivumela ukuthi sizazise ngendlela ecace nelula. Ngincoma kakhulu leli khasi, lisiza kakhulu kithina esifundela ekolishi. NGIBONGA KAKHULU

  6.   ULuciana Rueda Luna kusho

    Yebo leli khasi lihle kepha kunezinto ezingamanga kodwa zichazwe kahle kakhulu ngiyabonga ngencazelo 😘😘😉😉😉

  7.   ULuciana Rueda Luna kusho

    Yebo leli khasi lihle kepha kunezinto ezingamanga kodwa zichazwe kahle kakhulu ngiyabonga ngencazelo 😘😘😉😉😉

  8.   Lucy kusho

    Ukuphendula uPedro, imikhumbi ingamelana nalokhu kubanda ngenxa yezihlangu ezishisayo
    imvamisa yakhiwa ngezinto ze-phenolic.

  9.   I-Kirito kusho

    ngitshele umbuzo aber

  10.   UDaniela BB😂 kusho

    Lolu wwazi oluhle kakhulu ℹ lungasisiza sonke esasifunda ngangicabanga ukuthi kunezingqimba ezi-4 kanti ziyi-5 😂😂😂

  11.   rebeca melendez kusho

    Ngifunda isikole samabanga aphakeme esivulekile futhi imininingwane ingisize kakhulu futhi ichazwe kahle kakhulu, ngiyabonga

  12.   Naomi kusho

    Kuhle kakhulu, ngiyabonga.

  13.   HECTOR MORENO kusho

    Inkohliso engaka, yonke into ingamanga, bangani, lonke uhlelo lokufundisa ngamanga alukwazi ngisho nokuphumela emkhathini, ukumboza konke, ukuphenya ngeFlat Earth bese kuvuka.

    1.    christian roberto kusho

      bheka i-hector moreno Ngiyakholelwa kusayensi kepha vula imibuzo yakho ngale komcabango wakho bese uzibuze ukuthi kungani iplanethi yadalwa uhlelo lwezemfundo lunemikhawulo kodwa ukube besingenayo ngabe sesivele sithola ukuthi umhlaba usicaba noma cha neqiniso laleli zwe Kepha njengoba singenabo ubuchwepheshe obukhona njengamanje, awukwazi ukuphendula, uthi asikwazi ukusuka phansi ngoba uthi akusikho ukufihla, kuyiqiniso, ngoba uma kungenjalo, besingeke sitshelwe lutho, umuntu wazibuza futhi wathi lokho Uma umhlaba uyisicaba futhi kusukela lapho kwaqala inkolelo yokuthi uma siphila emhlabeni oyisicaba noma oyindilinga futhi basinika impendulo elula, iyindilinga ngoba uma kungenjalo ngabe ibiyisicaba, wonke umuntu ubengakhangwa amandla omhlaba futhi ibhalansi izolahleka ngoba kwezinye izindawo bekungaba ukushisa okubandayo okubandayo ubusuku nemini futhi lelohlobo lokulinganisela belingaba libi ngoba asiphili kanjalo kunalokho uma umhlaba ujikeleza futhi uzungeze umhlaba wonke amakhaza ukushisa futhi akekhongikhangwe iphuzu elilodwa likazibuthe futhi ngineminyaka engu-13 kuphela ubudala bengilokhu ngiphapheme cishe iminyaka emi-4 engaphendula kahle umbuzo wakho noma ingapheli: 3: v

  14.   I-juan kusho

    Angikholwa ukuthi kufinyelelwa kuma-degree ayinkulungwane ku-thermosphere, ngoba inyanga ezungeza umhlaba ifinyelela cishe kuma-degree + -160 ayinangqondo, futhi kwi-mercury, esondele kakhulu elangeni, izinga lokushisa engicabanga ukuthi ngicabanga ukuthi liyazungeza ngama-degree angama-600 ubuningi be-1000, ngakho-ke akunangqondo…. kuyinto typo ngicabanga.

  15.   U-Edwing Rodriguez kusho

    Sawubona, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngolwazi, ngiyalithanda ikhasi, lihlala lingisiza ngemisebenzi yesikole futhi nemininingwane iyasiza.
    Ngiyabonga 😊.

  16.   ULisandro Milesi kusho

    Ephendula uJuan. Amazinga okushisa ancike ekutheni ilanga likhanya noma cha. Ukukhuluma ngokushisa okukodwa yiphutha olenzayo. Kuhluka kakhulu uma imisebe yelanga ifika noma cha. Isibonelo, ukuhlala kwenyanga kwenziwa ngokukhanya kwelanga, kepha amakhaza abanda kakhulu.
    Phendula ngokucaphuna

  17.   ujudith herrera kusho

    Bengilithanda, imininingwane mihle futhi ifinyelela ezingeni, ngiyabonga kakhulu 🙂

  18.   u-alejandro alvarez kusho

    Sanibonani nonke… !!!
    Ngimusha kuleli sayithi, ngiyabonga kakhulu.
    Bengifunda i-athikili ekhuluma ngezikhundla ezahlukahlukene zomhlaba futhi ngithole ukuthi umbiko uphelele futhi ubucayi. Anginathemba lokuqhubeka nokufunda okuningi ... kusuka e-Uruguay!
    U-Atte Alejandro * IRON * ALVAREZ. .. !!!