I-Heliocentrism

i-heliocentrism

Ngaphambili bekucatshangwa ukuthi wonke amaplanethi azungeza umhlaba. Lo mbono wawaziwa njenge-geocentrism. Kamuva ngekhulu le-XNUMX kwafika UNicolaus Copernicus ukubeka ukuthi kwakuyilanga enkabeni yendawo yonke. Kwakuyingxenye eyinhloko lapho amanye amaplanethi nezinkanyezi zajikeleza khona. Lo mbono wawaziwa ngokuthi i-heliocentrism.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana ne-heliocentrism, izici zayo nokwehluka okuyinhloko nge-geocentrism.

Izici ze-heliocentrism

uhlelo lwelanga

Maphakathi nekhulu le-XNUMX leminyaka, inkolelo-mbono ye-heliocentric noma i-heliocentrism ehlongozwe nguNicolaus Copernicus yathatha ngokuthi ilanga liyisikhungo sendawo yonke, futhi amaplanethi nezinkanyezi kuzungeza lona esikhundleni soMhlaba, njengoba bekucatshangwa kusukela ngekhulu lesi-XNUMX AD.

Ngaphambi kokushicilelwa nokusatshalaliswa kweDe Revolitionibus Orbium Coelestium kaCopernicus (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs, 1543), inkolelo-mbono eyayidume kakhulu futhi yamukelwa eYurophu kwakuyinkolelo yesazi sezinkanyezi samaGreki uClaudius Ptolemy (ngekhulu lesi-XNUMX AD). UPtolemy wasekela umbono ka-Aristotle wokuthi umhlaba uyisikhungo sendawo yonke futhi wenza imodeli yokuchaza ukuhamba okuhlukile kwelanga, amaplanethi nezinkanyezi emhlabeni wonke, okuvezwe encwadini yakhe i-Almagest, eyasatshalaliswa ama-Arabhu namaKrestu. Kwasakazwa kabanzi kwaze kwaba ngekhulu le-XNUMX.

Umbhali wokuqala ukuphakamisa ukuthi ilanga liyisikhungo sendawo yonke kwakungu-Aristarchus waseSamos (270 BC). Wayengcwele kuLabhulali yase-Alexandria. Ubuye walinganisa ubukhulu bomhlaba nebanga eliphakathi komhlaba nelanga. .distance. Kodwa lo mbono wawungeke ubuse phezu kwalowo owakhiwa ngu-Aristotle. Umhlaba wawulungisiwe, uzungezwe uchungechunge lwemikhakha lapho kufakwa khona ilanga, inyanga, amaplanethi nezinye izinkanyezi. Lolu hlelo kamuva lupheleliswa nguClaudius Ptolemy (145 AD), omunye ongcwele ovela eMtatsheni Wezincwadi wase-Alexandria.

Kepha kufanele silinde kuze kube sekhulwini le-XNUMX, nomsebenzi wompristi wasePoland, isazi sezibalo nesazi sezinkanyezi uNicholas Copernicus, ngaphambi umhlaba ungashintshwa yilanga futhi ube maphakathi nendawo. Umbono we-heliocentric ubeka ilanga enkabeni yendawo yonke, kanti uMhlaba, amanye amaplanethi, nezinkanyezi kuyizungeza. UCopernicus uphinde wacabanga ukuthi umhlaba unezinhlobo ezintathu zokunyakaza: ukunyakaza uzungeze ilanga, ukujikeleza, nokuphambuka uzungeze i-eksisi yawo. UCopernicus wasekela umbono wakhe esicelweni semfundiso kanye nasochungechungeni lwamatafula nezibalo zokubikezela ukuhamba kwezinkanyezi.

Encwadini eshiwo ngenhla, uCopernicus usho lokhu okulandelayo mayelana ne-heliocentrism:

“Yonke imikhakha izungeza iLanga, eliphakathi kwayo yonke […] noma yikuphi ukunyakaza okubonakala kwenzeka emkhakheni wezinkanyezi ezingaguquguquki empeleni akubangelwa yinoma yikuphi ukunyakaza kwamuva, kodwa kunalokho ukuhamba Umhlaba".

Umlando omncane kaCopernicus

inkolelo ye-heliocentric

UNicolás Copernicus wazalelwa emndenini ocebile onomsebenzi omkhulu ebhizinisini. Kodwa-ke, waba yintandane eneminyaka eyi-10. Ebhekene nesizungu, umalume wakhe wamnakekela. Ithonya likamalume wakhe lasiza uCopernicus ukuthola intuthuko enkulu kwezamasiko futhi futhi kwavuselela nokulangazelela kwabantu ngendawo yonke.

Ngo-1491 wangena eNyuvesi yaseKrakow ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kukamalume wakhe. Kukholakala ukuthi ukube uCopernicus ubengeyona intandane, uCopernicus ubezoba ngusomabhizinisi njengomndeni wakhe. Kakade esezingeni eliphakeme eyunivesithi, waqhubeka nokuya eBologna ukuqedela ukuqeqeshwa kwakhe. Waya ezifundweni zomthetho we-canon futhi wathola ukuholwa kubuntu base-Italy. Yonke iminyakazo yamasiko yangaleso sikhathi yayinethonya eliqinile ekukhuthazekeni kwakhe ukuthuthukisa inkolelo-mbono yelanga eyaholela kunguquko.

Umalume wakhe wadlula emhlabeni ngo-1512. UCopernicus waqhubeka esebenza esikhundleni sobufundisi sohlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli. Kwakusekuqaleni kuka-1507 lapho enaba ukuchazwa kwakhe kokuqala kombono osenkabeni yelanga. Ngokungafani nalokho okwakucatshangwa ukuthi uMhlaba uyisikhungo seMvelo nokuthi wonke amaplanethi, kuhlanganise neLanga, ayezungeza wona, okuphambene kwavezwa obala. Kepha umsebenzi ogcina wenza umbono wakhe waziwe, On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs, wakhishwa ngo-1543, ngawo lowo nyaka uCopernicus abulawa ngayo isifo sohlangothi.

I-Heliocentrism kanye ne-geocentrism

i-geocentrism ne-heliocentrism

Kule mbono, kubhekwe ukuthi ilanga laba kanjani isikhungo sesimiso sonozungezilanga futhi umhlaba wasizungeza. Ngokwesisekelo sombono wale ndawo, bonke abafunda isayensi yezinkanyezi baqala ukukhiqiza nokusabalalisa inqwaba yamakhophi abhalwe ngesandla ohlelo. Ngenxa yalo mbono, uNicholas Copernicus uthathwa njengesazi sezinkanyezi esimangalisayo. Lonke ucwaningo lwakho endaweni yonke kumele lususelwe kumqondo wokuthi amaplanethi azungeza ilanga.

Umsebenzi kaCopernicus unwetshisiwe ukuze uchaze futhi uvikele umbono we-heliocentric ngokuningiliziwe. Ngokumangazayo, ukuveza umbono oguqula zonke izinkolelo zamanje ngendawo yonke, kumele kuvikelwe ngobufakazi obungaphikisa lo mbono.

Emsebenzini, siyabona ukuthi indawo yonke inesakhiwo esiyindilinga esilinganiselwe, lapho konke ukunyakaza okuyisiyingi kuyindilinga, ngoba ukuphela kokuhamba okulungele ubunjalo bezindikimba zasezulwini. Encwadini yakhe yethisisi, ukuphikisana okuningi kungatholakala nomqondo wendawo yonke ngaphambi kwalokhu. Yize umhlaba ungasekho enkabeni namaplanethi engasazungezi wona, asikho isikhungo esisodwa esabiwe yizo zonke izindikimba zasezulwini ezisesimisweni sawo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngaphambili i-geocentrism yayisebenza. Kuyisibonelo esakha indawo yonke maqondana nesimo somhlaba. Phakathi kwezitatimende eziyisisekelo zalo mbono sithola:

  • Umhlaba uyisikhungo sendawo yonke. Yamanye amaplanethi ahamba kuwo.
  • Umhlaba uyiplanethi ehleliwe emkhathini.
  • Iyiplanethi eyingqayizivele nekhethekile uma siyiqhathanisa nezinye izidalwa zasezulwini.. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ayinyakazi futhi inezici ezihlukile.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-heliocentrism nezimpawu zayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.