I-Caspian Sea

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngolwandle oluthola leli gama kepha eliyichibi lamanzi amunyu. Imayelana ne- ICaspian Sea. ICaspian Sea ingumzimba wamanzi ozungezwe ngokuphelele ngumhlaba futhi ongenawo umthombo oqondile olwandle noma olwandle. Ngakho-ke, uma silandela incazelo enikezwe kwi-geology, kuyicala hhayi ulwandle. Inezinga elithile likasawoti futhi ihlukaniswa njengechibi elikhulu kunawo wonke ezweni noma umcengezi wokuvumela emhlabeni. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, kubhekwa njengolwandle oluncane kunazo zonke emhlabeni.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici, i-geology kanye nelukuluku loLwandle iCaspian.

Izici eziyinhloko

Ukwakhiwa koLwandle lweCaspian

Lapho ucubungula uLwandle iCaspian noma ichibi, umuntu kufanele futhi abheke nesici somthetho. Isibonelo, uma kuzobhekwa njengolwandle ngamazwe alukhawulelayo, futhi imithombo yemvelo ekhona ezikhwameni zayo kungaba impahla yasogwini lwezwe ngalinye. Ngaphandle kwalokho, uma sikhuluma echibini, izinsizakusebenza ezingezansi zizohlukaniswa ngokulinganayo phakathi kwamazwe aqhamuka emazweni angaphandle.

ULwandle iCaspian lusempumalanga Yezintaba ZaseCaucasus ngokucindezeleka okujulile phakathi kweYurophu neAsia. Singamamitha angama-28 ngaphansi kogu lolwandle. Amazwe aqhamuka ezungeze uLwandle iCaspian yi-Iran, i-Azerbaijan, iTurkmenistan, iRussia neKazakhstan. Lolu lwandle lwakhiwe ngemicengezi emithathu: maphakathi noma maphakathi nenyakatho nomcengezi oseningizimu.

Umcengezi wokuqala mncane kakhulu ngoba umboza okungaphezulu nje kwekota yendawo yonke yolwandle. Futhi yingxenye engajulile kakhulu esingayithola kule ndawo. Umcengezi omaphakathi unokujula okungamamitha ayi-190, okuvumela ukuba khona kwenani elikhulu lemithombo yemvelo, yize okujule kakhulu kuseningizimu. Umcengezi oseningizimu uphethe u-2/3 womthamo wamanzi ophelele oLwandle iCaspian.

Ububanzi obuphelele balolu lwandle ngokwesilinganiso cishe ngamakhilomitha angama-230. Endaweni ebanzi kunazo zonke iyakwazi ukukala amakhilomitha angama-435 kanti ubude bayo cishe bungamakhilomitha ayi-1030. Ingxenye ejulile iyindawo lapho umhlaba ukhuphuka khona ngokungazelelwe ekujuleni kwamamitha ayi-1.025. Indawo ephelele yolwandle ingamakhilomitha-skwele angama-371000 nomthamo wamanzi wamakhilomitha-skwele angama-78.200. Kungashiwo ukuthi lolu lwandle luqukethe ngaphezu kwe-40% yawo wonke amanzi ezwekazi lomhlaba. Yize ingenayo indawo ephuma olwandle, belungekho olwandle olunikezwa imifula eminingi egelezela kulo.

Phakathi kwemifula ebaluleke kakhulu egelezela kulolu lwandle sigqamisa i-Ural, iTrerek, i-Atrak neKurá. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu esenza ukuthi lwaziwe njengolwandle kwazise kunemifula eminingi egelezela kulo.

Ukwakhiwa koLwandle lweCaspian

Ukungcoliswa kolwandle iCaspian

Amanzi alolu lwandle anosawoti omncane, yize cishe kungokwesithathu kuphela kasawoti wamanzi olwandle. Lokhu kungenxa yephesenti lamanzi elihwamukayo njengoba liphezulu impela kwezinye izindawo.

Ngenkathi ububi obubizwa ngeParatetis benziwa cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezi-5.5 edlule, balahlekelwa ukuxhumana nolwandle futhi kwahlukaniswa ngokuphelele ngemuva kokwehla kwezinga lamanzi nokuphakanyiswa koqweqwe lomhlaba olwakha izintaba eziseduze. Lezi zintaba yiCaucasus ne-Elburz. Ekuqaleni kokwakhiwa koLwandle iCaspian, lwakha umcengezi owodwa kanye noLwandle Olumnyama futhi lwafinyelela ezingeni eliphezulu ngesikhathi se I-Paleocene. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho ukuphakama okukhulu kwezintaba zaseCaucasus kwenzeka khona okwanciphisa ukwehlukaniswa komcengezi waba yimizimba emibili ehlukene. Lokhu kubangele ukuthi uLwandle iCaspian luhlukaniswe ngokuphelele.

Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo kanye nezinsongo zoLwandle iCaspian

Njengoba ungalindela, uLwandle iCaspian luyingxenye yenani elikhulu lezinto eziphilayo. Kuwo kunezinhlobo ezingaphezu kwezingu-850 zezilwane nezinhlobo zezitshalo ezingaphezu kuka-500 Ngenxa yalezi zimo ezihlukile zokwakheka, kumenyezelwe ukuthi cishe izinhlobo zezilwane ezingama-400 ezihlala khona zihlala nokunye okuningi okuhlala ezindaweni ezihlala imifula nasemifuleni.

Ezinye izinhlobo zezilwane esingazithola oLwandle iCaspian yilezi: uphawu, ngokuba ngesinye sezilwane ezivelele kakhulu ngoba azitholakali kwenye indawo emhlabeni ngoba luhlobo lwendalo. Siphinde sibe nenani elikhulu lezinhlanzi ezinjenge-perch, pike, herring, castle whitefish, sprat, bream kanye ne-sturgeon. I-sturgeon ingenye yezinhlanzi ezinikeza imali eningi emazweni azungezile kusukela i-roe yayo isetshenziswa njenge-caviar. Ukudoba ama-sturgeon kulolu lwandle kumelela cishe ama-90% okubanjwa kwawo emhlabeni.

Uma siya engxenyeni engaphansi kwamanzi ye-ecosystem singabona futhi ukuba khona kwezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zama-mollusk nama-crustaceans, kanye nezinye ezihuquzelayo. Sithola ufudu lwaseRussia, ufudu omnyama, phakathi kwabanye. Ebusweni naseduze kolwandle, ezinye izinyoni nazo ziyakha futhi zibe ngaphezu kobusika, njenge inhlanzi yaseCaspian, impisi evamile, i-swan ejwayelekile, ihansi elivamile, i-mallard, i-whooper swan kanye nokhozi lwasebukhosini, phakathi kwabanye.

Mayelana nohlaza, sithola ezinye izinhlobo zobulembu obomvu nobunsundu obutholakala ekujuleni kolwandle nakwezinye izindawo ezisogwini. Ezindaweni eziseduze nolwandle ezinye izitshalo ze-xerophytic ziyakhula ezikhula kahle. Ezinye zalezi zitshalo ziguqulelwa enhlabathini eyomile.

Izinsongo

Njengoba bekulindelekile, lolu lwandle lusongelwa yimisebenzi yezomnotho yabantu. Umcengezi walolu lwandle ugcwele kakhulu uwoyela negesi yemvelo. Le mithombo yemvelo ibaluleke kakhulu esifundeni sonke. Ukuxhashazwa komkhiqizo kukhuphukile phakathi namashumi eminyaka edlule kuye ngesidingo. Ngokubambisana nokudoba ama-sturgeon baba nomthelela ekukhuleni okukhulu kwezomnotho nakho okudala imithelela emvelweni.

Lokhu kungenxa yokungcoliswa kwamanzi ngenxa yokwakhiwa kwamapulatifomu wokukhipha, iziqhingi zokuzenzela nezinye izakhiwo ezidingekayo ukuze zikwazi ukukhipha lezi zinsiza zemvelo futhi zikhiphe izinto ezinobuthi ngezolimo nemfuyo.

Kukhona nezinsongo ezingapheli ezivela ekuchithekeni kukawoyela. Njengoba imvelo yolwandle ivaliwe, uLwandle iCaspian lusengozini enkulu yokungcola.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoLwandle lweCaspian.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.