Indian Ocean

iziqhingi zolwandle lwaseNdiya

Phakathi kwakho konke izilwandle zomhlaba yi I-Indian Ocean. Ingenye yezingxenye zolwandle lomhlaba wonke lomhlaba wethu oludlulela ezindaweni zaseMpumalanga Ephakathi, eNingizimu Asia, e-Australia naseMpumalanga Afrika. Inosayizi okwazi ukugcina amanzi angama-20% awo wonke emhlabeni. Inenqwaba yezifunda eziyiziqhingi ezithandwa kakhulu ngabahloli bamazwe nabavakashi. Esinye seziqhingi ezaziwa kakhulu iMadagascar.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana noLwandlekazi lwaseNdiya, imvelaphi yalo, ukwakheka komhlaba, isimo sezulu, izimila nezilwane.

Umsuka woLwandlekazi lwaseNdiya

I-Indian Ocean

Into yokuqala okufanele ibhekwe ukwakhiwa kwazo zonke izilwandle zomhlaba. Kutholakele ukuthi iningi lamanzi aseplanethi yoMhlaba lavela ngaphakathi kwengqimba yomhlaba ngenxa yomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo namandla ajikelezayo. Njengoba ekuqaleni kokwakhiwa kweplanethi kwakukhona umhwamuko wamanzi kuphela, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yamazinga okushisa eplanethi ayephakeme kakhulu kangangoba ayengavumeli amanzi abe uketshezi. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, umkhathi womhlaba wafinyelelwa ngosuku ukwakha ulwandle esazi namuhla. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kwaqubuka imvula futhi lokhu kwaletha amanzi amaningi angamanzi aqala ukufakwa ezindaweni eziphansi nasemachibini.

Imifula evikela indawo enezintaba nayo yaqala ukukhula. Ngokuhamba kwama-plate tectonics, amazwekazi aqala ukwehlukana nokunyakaza, enza imingcele ehlukahlukene yomhlaba nolwandle. Ngale ndlela, kwasungulwa i-Indian Ocean kusukela babekhona kukhawulele yonke imiphetho yamazwekazi nemisinga ye-Afrika, i-Oceania ne-Asia.

Izici eziyinhloko

izici zesikhombi

Lolu lwandle lutholakala phakathi kweNdiya eseningizimu ne-Oceania, empumalanga ye-Afrika nasenyakatho ye-Antarctica. Ijoyina omunye wemifudlana ye- ulwandle olwandle eningizimu-ntshonalanga, ngenkathi eningizimu igeza ogwini lwaseningizimu ye-Afrika. Ijoyina naye i-Pacific Ocean engxenyeni eseningizimu esempumalanga.

Inokujula nge isilinganiso samamitha angama-3741, kanti ukujula kwawo okuphezulu kufinyelela kumamitha ayi-7258, ukuba le ndawo esiqhingini saseJava. Singakhuluma futhi ngobude baso bogu. Inobude obugudle kakhulu basogwini obungamakhilomitha angama-66 futhi ivolumu yayo ingamakhilomitha-cubic angama-526.

Ulwandle lwesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni wonke ngoba lunendawo engamakhilomitha-skwele ayizigidi ezingama-70.56.

Ngokuphathelene nokwakheka komhlaba, Kutholakala ukuthi ama-86% ayo yonke le ndawo ambozwe yizinsalela ze-pelagic. Lezi zinsalela zimane nje kube ihlobo elihle elinqwabelana ngenxa yokufakwa kwezinhlayiya olwandle. Zonke lezi zidalwa zemvelo zivame ukukhula emanzini ajulile futhi zakhiwa ikakhulukazi ngamagobolondo e-biogenic silica. La magobolondo avame ukufihlwa yizo zombili i-phytoplankton ne-zooplankton. Zibuye zivame ukwenziwa nge-calcium carbonate. Ezinye izinsalela ezincane ze-siliciclastic zitholakala ekujuleni.

I-14% yobuso imbozwe izingqimba ezincane zezidalwa ezishubile zomhlaba. Zonke lezi zidalwa zakha uchungechunge lwezinhlayiya ezikhiqizwa enhlabathini yasemhlabeni futhi zijoyine izidalwa zasolwandle.

Isimo sezulu sasolwandle lwaseNdiya

Sizokhuluma ngesimo sezulu esikhona endaweni yonke yoLwandlekazi i-Indian. Siyazi ukuthi engxenyeni eseningizimu yolwandle kuza isimo sezulu esizinzile. Kodwa-ke, engxenyeni esenyakatho kunenani elikhulu lokungazinzi komkhathi. Lokhu kungazinzi kubangela ukukhulelwa kwezimvula. AmaMonsoon aziwa emhlabeni wonke njengo imimoya yonyaka ekhiqizwa ukufuduka kwebhande lasenkabazwe. Le mimoya yemvula ingahambisana nemvula enamandla, yize ingabanda futhi yomile. Zonke lezi zimvula zithinta kakhulu imiphakathi etholakala kulezi zindawo futhi encike kakhulu kwezolimo.

Izimvula ezinamandla zivame ukuba nemithelela emibi emnothweni. Esinye sezibonelo ezinjalo isibalo esikhulu sokufa kwabantu abaminza minyaka yonke eNdiya kusukela kulezi zimvula. Engxenyeni eseningizimu yolwandle, imimoya ayinamandla kangako, yize ehlobo, kuvame ukuba neziphepho ezinamandla futhi ezilimazayo.

Izimbali nezilwane

izimvula

Sizohlaziya ukuthi yini ukwehluka okukhiqizwa kulo lonke lolu lwandle. Siyazi ukuthi ngaphakathi kwezimbali zoLwandlekazi lwaseNdiya akufakwa kuphela izitshalo zasolwandle. Lezi zitshalo ikakhulukazi zakhiwe ulwelwe oluhlaza, onsundu nobomvu. Imvamisa kufaka phakathi zonke izinhlobo zezitshalo ezihlala ogwini naseziqhingini.

Olunye lwezinhlobo ezaziwa kakhulu zaleli lwandle yi-el I-Adiantum Hispidulum. Luhlobo lwefern encane eyomndeni wakwaPteridaceae. Lo mndeni unendawo ebanzi yokusatshalaliswa kuzo zonke izindawo ze- IPolynesia, i-Australia, i-Afrika, iNew Zealand kanye neziqhingi eziningi ezise-Indian Ocean. Luhlobo lwefern olungakhula phakathi kwamatshe noma kwezinye izindawo ezinenhlabathi evikelekile kakhulu. Kubonakala ngokuba nezicucu futhi kungaba ngamasentimitha angama-45 ubude.

Inamacembe ohlobo lwayo olungunxantathu noluyindilinga futhi ivula ngamathiphu agcina esesimeni sefeni noma idayimane. Imimoya yalolu lwandle ibangela isimo sezulu esiswakeme esivumela ukukhula kwalolu hlobo lwefern eziqhingini.

Enye yezinhlobo zezimbali eziningi futhi ezihlukile e-Indian Ocean yi-Andasonia. Lezi yizihlahla ezihlukile ezinesiqu esikhulu, esingajwayelekile noma esime okwebhodlela esigcwele amafindo. Ukuphakama kuhamba kancane noma ngaphansi phakathi kwamamitha angama-33, kanti ububanzi bomqhele wayo bungadlula amamitha ayi-11.

Ngokuqondene nezilwane, kukhawulwe kakhulu ngoba indawo yasolwandle ayinayo inani elanele le-phytoplankton, okuyisisekelo sewebhu yokudla. Kodwa-ke, izinhlobo eziningana ezifana nezimfanzi ne-tuna zitholakala engxenyeni esenyakatho, ezinye zifana nemikhomo nezimfudu. Kukhona nezinye izindawo ezinamakhorali.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-Indian Ocean nezimpawu zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.