Ulwandlekazi lwaseIndiya

Iziqithi zolwandle lwaseIndiya

Phakathi kwazo zonke iilwandle zehlabathi Ingaba i Ulwandlekazi lwaseIndiya. Ngenye yeenxalenye zolwandle lwehlabathi lomhlaba wethu oludlulela kwimimandla yakuMbindi Mpuma, eMzantsi Asia, eAustralia naseMpuma Afrika. Inobungakanani obunokubamba ukuya kuthi ga kwiipesenti ezingama-20 zawo onke amanzi emhlabeni. Inenani elikhulu lemimandla yesiqithi ethandwa kakhulu ngabahloli kunye nabakhenkethi. Esinye seziqithi ezaziwa kakhulu yiMadagascar.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into odinga ukuyazi malunga ne-Indian Ocean, imvelaphi yayo, ijiology, imozulu, iintyatyambo nezilwanyana.

Imvelaphi yoLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya

Ulwandlekazi lwaseIndiya

Into yokuqala yokuqwalaselwa kukwenziwa kwalo lonke ulwandle lwehlabathi. Kufunyenwe ukuba uninzi lwamanzi akwiplanethi yoMhlaba avela kumbindi womhlaba ngenxa yomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo kunye namandla ajikelezayo. Kuba ekuqaleni koyilo lweplanethi bekukho umphunga wamanzi kuphela, ubukhulu becala kungenxa yamaqondo obushushu beplanethi ayephezulu kangangokuba ayengavumeli amanzi ukuba abe lulwelo. Ngokuhamba kwexesha, imeko-bume yoMhlaba yafezekiswa ngemini ukwenza iilwandlekazi esizaziyo namhlanje. Ukongeza, imvula yavela kwaye oku kwazisa ubuninzi bamanzi alulwelo aqala ukubekwa kwimimandla esezantsi nasemazantsi.

Imilambo ekhusela intaba nayo yaqala ukukhula. Ngokuhamba kwee-tectonics zeplati, amazwekazi aqala ukwahlukana kwaye ahamba, avelisa imida eyahlukeneyo yomhlaba kunye nolwandle. Ngale ndlela, i-Indian Ocean yenziwa ukusukela oko Imida yonke imiphetho yamazwekazi kunye nemisinga yeAfrika, iOceania neAsia.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Iimpawu zesalathiso

Olu lwandle lubekwe phakathi kwe-Indiya kunye ne-Oceania, empuma ye-Afrika kunye nomantla e-Antarctica. Ijoyina omnye wemilambo ye Ulwandlekazi lweAtlantic emzantsi-ntshona, ngelixa emazantsi ihlamba amanxweme akumazantsi eAfrika. Ujoyina naye ipacific Ocean kwicala lasempuma.

Inobunzulu nge i-avareji yeemitha ezingama-3741, ngelixa ubunzulu bayo bufikelela kwiimitha ezingama-7258, ukuba le ndawo kwisiqithi saseJava. Singathetha ngobude baselunxwemeni. Inobude obuphezulu bonxweme beekhilomitha ezingama-66 kunye nomthamo wayo malunga neekhilomitha ezingama-526 zeekhilomitha.

Lulwandle lwesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni wonke kuba lunendawo emalunga ne-70.56 yezigidi zeekhilomitha ezizikwere.

Ngokubhekisele kwijoloji yayo, Kufunyenwe ukuba iipesenti ezingama-86 zommandla wonke zigutyungelwe zizidalwa zepelagic. Ezi ntlenga azinto ngaphandle kwehlobo entle eqokelelana njengesiphumo sokufakwa kwamasuntswana elwandle. Zonke ezi ntlenga zihlala zikhula emanzini anzulu kwaye zidityaniswa ikakhulu ziigobolondo ze-silica ze-biogenic. La magobolondo ahlala efihlwa zizo zombini iphytoplankton kunye nezooplankton. Kananjalo zihlala zenziwe ngecalcium carbonate. Ezinye izidalwa ezincinci ze-siliciclastic zifumaneka ezinzulwini.

I-14% yomphezulu ugqunywe ziingqimba ezincinci zezidalwa zomhlaba. Zonke ezi zithambeka zenza ungcelele lwamasuntswana aveliswayo kumhlaba wasemhlabeni kwaye ajoyine intlenga yolwandle.

Imozulu yolwandle lwaseIndiya

Siza kuthetha ngemozulu egqubayo kummandla wonke woLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya. Siyazi ukuba emazantsi olwandle kuza imozulu entle. Nangona kunjalo, kwinxalenye esemantla kukho isixa esikhulu sokungazinzi komoya. Ukungazinzi kubangela ukukhulelwa kweemonons. Iimonson ziyaziwa kwihlabathi liphela njenge imimoya yamaxesha onyaka eveliswa kukushenxiswa kwebhanti yeikhweyitha. Le mimoya yeemonon inokuhamba nemvula enkulu, nangona inokubanda kwaye yomile. Zonke ezi monsoons zichaphazela kakhulu uluntu olukule ndawo kwaye luxhomekeke ikakhulu kwezolimo.

Iimvula ezinkulu zihlala zinefuthe elibi kuqoqosho. Omnye umzekelo linani elikhulu lokurhaxwa kwabantu abafayo eIndiya minyaka le kwezi monsoons. Kwinxalenye esemazantsi olwandle, umoya awunamandla kangako, nangona ehlotyeni, zihlala zibakho izitshingitshane ezinamandla nezonakalisayo.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana

iimvula

Siza kuhlalutya iyantlukwano eveliswayo kulo lonke ulwandle. Siyazi ukuba iintyatyambo zoLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya azibandakanyi izityalo zaselwandle kuphela. Ezi zityalo ikakhulu zenziwe luhlaza oluhlaza, omdaka kunye nobomvu. Ihlala ibandakanya zonke iintlobo zeentyatyambo ezihlala kunxweme nakwiziqithi.

Olunye lweentlobo ezaziwa kakhulu kolu lwandle ngu-el Adiantum Hispidum. Luhlobo lwefern encinci yeyosapho lakwaPteridaceae. Olu sapho lunendawo ebanzi yokuhambisa kuzo zonke iindawo ze IPolynesia, iAustralia, iAfrika, iNew Zealand kunye noninzi lweziqithi ezikulwandlekazi lwaseIndiya. Luhlobo lwefern olunokukhula phakathi kwamatye okanye kwezinye iindawo ezinemihlaba ekhuselekileyo. Iphawulwa ngokuba neentsimbi kwaye inokuba ziisentimitha ezingama-45 ubude.

Inamagqabi ohlobo olunxantathu kunye ne-elliptical kwaye zivula ngeengcebiso ezifikelela kubume befeni okanye idayimane. Imimoya evela kolu lwandle ibangela imozulu efumileyo evumela ukukhula kolu hlobo lwefern kwezi ziqithi.

Enye yeentlobo ezininzi zeentyatyambo ezininzi kwaye zahlukile kuLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya yiAndasonia. Le yimithi eyahlukileyo enesiqu esikhulu, esingaqhelekanga okanye esenziwe ngebhotile esigcwele ngamaqhina. Ukuphakama kuyajikeleza ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi phakathi kweemitha ezingama-33, ngelixa ubukhulu besithsaba salo bungadlula kwiimitha ezili-11.

Ngokubhekisele kwizilwanyana, isikelwe umda kuba umhlaba waselwandle ayinayo imali eyoneleyo ye-phytoplankton, esisiseko sewebhu yokutya. Nangona kunjalo, iintlobo ezininzi ezinje nge-shrimp kunye ne-tuna zifunyanwa kwinxalenye esemantla, ezinye zifana neminenga kunye noofudo. Kukwakho nezinye iindawo ezinee-coral reef.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga noLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya kunye neempawu zalo.


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