Ulwandle lweBaltic

Ulwandle lweBaltic

Olunye lolwandle olukulo Ulwandlekazi lweAtlantic yiyo Ulwandle lweBaltic. Ingalo yolwandle kumantla enxalenye ukusuka kumazantsi eDenmark phantse afike kwiArctic Circle kwaye ahlule usingasiqithi weScandinavia kulo lonke ilizwekazi laseYurophu. LuLwandle oluqwalaselwa njengolona lwandiso lukhulu lwamanzi amtyuba kwihlabathi. Ayinzulu kwaye ke ivelisa umdla omkhulu kuluntu lwenzululwazi ngenxa yetyuwa eninzi.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga noLwandle lweBaltic, iimpawu zalo kunye nemvelaphi.

Iimpawu eziphambili

imimandla yolwandle enebhaltiki

Lulwandiso lwamanzi amtyuba oluthathelwa ingqalelo njengowona mkhulu ehlabathini. Umfutshane ngokufutshane kwaye akukho nzulu kuwo. Kwababhali-mbali imele isiseko soqoqosho seHanseatic League kwaye kwizazinzulu ivelisa umdla omkhulu. Uninzi lwamagama afunyenwe lolu lwandle kwisithuba seminyaka emibini kungqina ubume beqhinga njengoko iyindawo yokuhlangana yamazwe amaninzi.

Lulwandle lwasemanzini olunamanzi amtyuba oludibana neYurophu kwaye luvuleleke kuLwandle lwaseMantla nakuLwandlekazi lweAtlantic. Ijikelezwe ngamazwe amaninzi enza i-peninsula yaseScandinavia. Ingaphezulu nje kweekhilomitha ezili-1600 ubude kunye nobubanzi obuqhelekileyo obujikeleze iikhilomitha ezili-190. Ukuba ubukele uthotho lweVikings uyakukwazi ukuba olu lwandle lwasentshona lolule intla ngaphesheya kweDenmark kwaye luya kubandakanya uKattegat. I-Kattegat sisistra esahlula iDenmark kumazantsi-ntshona eSweden.

Phakathi kweempawu ezithe zavela kolu lwandle, sibonisa ukuba lulwandle oluvaliwe ngaphakathi elizweni. Ithathelwa ingqalelo njengengalo yoLwandlekazi lweAtlantic edityaniswe ngu phakathi kweKattegat Strait kunye neSkagerrak Strait. Ndiyithathe njengenye yezona ziqhuma zamanzi ehlabathini kuba ifumana amanzi kuyo yomibini imilambo nolwandle. Ubume bayo bude kwaye bunqabile. Ekuphela kwendlela yokuphuma eya kuLwandlekazi lweAtlantic yiKattegat Strait.

Umthamo wamanzi olu lwandle lolwandle usondele kwi-20.000 cubic kilometres. Ubunzulu obuphakathi malunga neemitha ezingama-55 kuphela, ubunzulu obukhulu bumalunga ne-459 yeemitha. Njengolwandle olunzulu, yinto eqhelekileyo ukuba ityuwa yonke igxile ngokukhawuleza kwaye ibe kwindawo ephezulu. Inetyuwa ephakathi eyi-3.5%, nangona kwezinye iindawo ipesenti isezantsi.

Iziqithi ezikulwandle lweBaltic

Uqoqosho lweLwandle lweBaltic

Siza kubona ukuba zeziphi ezona ndawo zibalaseleyo oluqhutywa lolu lwandle. Ijikelezwe yipeninsula yaseScandinavia kwaye ilandela indlela ejonge kwewotshi esiyifumana kula mazwe alandelayo: iSweden, iFinland, iRussia, i-Estonia, iLatvia, iLithuania, iPoland, iJamani neDenmark.

Phakathi kweziqithi eziqaqanjisiweyo sibona ukuba olu lwandle lunamacandelo ahlukeneyo. Kwakuyinxalenye esemantla yoLwandle lwaseBothnian kwaye kwelona cala mpuma yayiyiGulf of Finland kunye neGulf of Riga. Esona siqithi sikhulu kolu lwandle yiIland Islands. Eli chwebakazi Ineziqithi ezingama-6.700 65 apho ezingama-XNUMX zazo zinabemi.

Phakathi kwezona ziqithi zidumileyo kuLwandle lweBaltic sinoku kulandelayo:

  • Fehmarn: sisiqithi eJamani esaziwa njenge siqithi selanga.
  • Ofihliweyo: Incinci kakhulu kuneLwandle lweBaltic.
  • Umbongo: Esi sisiqithi esinomdla, kuba imile okanxantathu.
  • Rugen: Sisiqithi esineyona ndawo yokhenketho ineyona ndawo idumileyo yaselwandle. Sesinye seziqithi ezihanjelweyo kuLwandle lweBaltic.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zoLwandle lweBaltic

Indalo yolu lwandle iba yinto eyithandayo kuzo zonke izazinzulu nakubaphandi kuba iphendula ngokukhawuleza kwiimpembelelo ezahlukeneyo zangaphandle. Nangona kunjalo, nangona oku, ulwandle oluhlwempuzeke kakhulu kwioksijini, oko kuthetha ukuba izilwanyana azifani kakhulu. Kukho kuphela iintlobo zeentlanzi apho sifumana ipherch, ipike, ikhowudi, isalmon, isprat, ibasking shark kunye ne-hake. Kuqhelekile nokujonga ezinye izilwanyana ezinje ngee-porpoise, ii-ringed seals, ii-otter zaseYurophu kunye neentaka ezinje ingwamza emhlophe, idada le-havelda, iikhreyithi kunye ne-ospreys abajonga ukutya kunxweme lwayo.

Ngokwezityalo, ukuba neoksijini encinci, inokubamba izityalo ezimbalwa. Awunakufumana iindidi ezininzi zezityalo xa unikwe ezi meko zimbi. Ezona zityalo zibalaseleyo esizifumanayo apha zi-algae emdaka, isinyi sargassum kunye nezityalo zeZostera, Charophyta kunye namaqela ePotamogeton.

Uqoqosho, ungcoliseko nokubaluleka

uqoqosho lolwandle olumtyuba

Siza kubona iparadigm yomntu ekhoyo ejikeleze olu lwandle. Ngokubhekisele kuqoqosho, siyazi ukuba yeyona nto ibalulekileyo yokuhambisa iimpahla. Ziqulathe ubunyani malunga ezinye zeendlela ezingama-24 zokuhambisa ezibalulekile ekuhambiseni izinto ezomileyo ezisisambuku ngobuninzi ezifana nentsimbi, amalahle, ubhedu okanye ukutya okuziinkozo. Ikwayindlela ebalulekileyo yokuhlola kunye nokuxhaphaza ioyile yaseRussia. Ke ngoko, kukho izinto ezininzi ezixhalabisayo malunga nongcoliseko lwaselwandle olunokwenzeka.

Yindawo ezisa ukhenketho olukhulu olukhulu, nangona ikwayimeko echaphazeleka nakukungcoliseka kwendalo okufunyanwa kukukhutshwa kweehydrocarbon. Ukuhla nokuhla kwemeko yokusingqongileyo kunye neziphumo ze-anthropogenic zichaphazela ulwandle kakhulu. Ezokuloba, ungcoliseko kunye noshishino ngabantu kutshabalalisa iimeko zendalo zolu lwandle.

Ngo-2010 kwabakho ukwanda kwe-algae eluhlaza okwadala ukuhla okuluhlaza okweqile kwimimandla eyenze ukuba ioksijini yehle nangakumbi. Ke, Inxalenye yolwandle ayinakuhlalwa ngenxa yoko ithathwa njengendawo efileyo. Ikwabonisa inkqubo yokutya okunokubangela ukuba iintyatyambo ezininzi zibonakale kwiindawo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga noLwandle lweBaltic kunye nazo zonke iimpawu zalo.


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