UClaudius Ptolemy

UClaudius ptolemy

Namhlanje siza kuthetha ngomnye wamadoda anikezele ngolwazi oluninzi kwisayensi. Imalunga ne UClaudius Ptolemy. Uyindoda eyayingumlingisi weenkwenkwezi waseGrisi, isazi semathematika kunye nejografi kwaye, nangona ulwazi oluncinci ngobomi bakhe luncinci, usosayensi usaphila unanamhla. Akwaziwa ncam ukuba wazalwa phi, okanye ngaluphi usuku. Ayaziwa nalapho asweleke khona kodwa siyalazi igalelo lakhe elikhulu.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke i-biography kunye nokuxhaphazwa kukaClaudio Ptolemy.

Ubomi bukaClaudius Ptolemy

Imephu yehlabathi ngu-claudius ptolemy

Nangona kungaziwa ncam ukuba wazalelwa phi uClaudius Ptolemy, kuqikelelwa ukuba yayise-Egypt. Yonke imisebenzi yayo yenziwe phakathi imihla yokuqwalaselwa kwakho okokuqala oyenzileyo ngo-AD 127 Oku kwaqwalaselwa kwenziwa ngonyaka weshumi elinanye wolawulo lukaHadrian. Kwelinye icala, enye yeembono zakhe zamva nje yayingumhla we-AD 141. Kwikhathalogu yeenkwenkwezi wamkela unyaka wokuqala wolawulo luka-Emperor Antoninus Pius njengomhla ekubhekiswa kuwo onke amaqumrhu. Lo nyaka wesalathiso ibingu-AD 138

UClaudius Ptolemy ungummeli wokugqibela kuyo yonke i-astronomy yamaGrike. Kwaye ngowona msebenzi wayo uphambili waphuhliswa kumbukeli wetempile yaseSerapis eCanopus. Le ndawo yokujonga izinto yayikufuphi neAlexandria. Owona msebenzi ungoyena udumileyo kaClaudius Ptolemy awaziwa kakhulu ngawo ngu I-syntax yeMathematika. Lo msebenzi wahlulwe waba yimiqulu eli-13 eyahlelwa njengomsebenzi omkhulu nowabanzi. Ngale ndlela, inokwahlulwa kwezinye ingqokelela yemibhalo yeenkwenkwezi yabanye ababhali. Ukubaluleka kokuba umsebenzi wakhe unokuba nakho kufanelekile ukuqhubela phambili kwesayensi.

Ukunconywa okwakhuthaza wonke umsebenzi kaClaudius Ptolemy kwazisa isiko lokuthetha ngalo kusetyenziswa igama lesiGrike elithi megisté. Eli gama lithetha ukuba likhulu kwaye liphezulu. Le yayiyimpembelelo yomsebenzi awayenawo uCaliph al-Mamun ngesi-Arabhu esiguqulelwe ngo-827. Igama le-al-Magisti njengoko kuguqulelwe okuvela kwisihloko seAlmagest. Esi sihloko samkelwa kwi-medieval West ukusuka kuguqulo lokuqala lwenguqulo yeArabhu. Le nguqulelo yenziwa eToledo ngowe-1175.

Iimpawu zomsebenzi kaClaudius Ptolemy

isazi ngeenkwenkwezi

Esebenzisa yonke idatha eqokelelwe ngabo bangaphambili, uClaudius Ptolemy wakha inkqubo yehlabathi emele ngenqanaba eliphezulu lokumiselwa yonke intshukumo ebonakalayo yelanga, inyanga kunye neeplanethi ezi-5 ezazisaziwa ngelo xesha. Usebenzise ngokukodwa idatha eqokelelwe nguHipparchus kuba bajolise koku. Wakwazi ukuseka ezi ntshukumo ngenqanaba elithile lokuchaneka kombulelo kwimithombo yejometri kunye nokubala okunzima. Isiseko solu lwazi lwalusekwe kwinkqubo yokuma komhlaba. Kule nkqubo yayisijikelezi-langa esinguMhlaba esingahambiyo embindini wendalo iphela. Ukusuka koku, zonke izinto zesibhakabhaka, kubandakanya ilanga, inyanga kunye nezinye iiplanethi, zijikeleza iplanethi yethu.

Iiplanethi ezazisaziwa ngelo xesha yayinguMercury, uVenus, uJupiter noSaturn. Kule nkqubo, uMhlaba uthathe indawo yokuma kancinci ngokubhekisele embindini wazo zonke izinto ezijikelezayo apho amanye amazimba asezulwini ahambileyo. Le migca yesikhundla yaziwa njengezangqa ezahlukileyo. Umzimba kuphela wasezulwini owanqumla kwisangqa sawo esasineentshukumo ezifanayo yayililanga. Kwelinye icala, inyanga kunye nezinye iiplanethi zahamba ngesinye isangqa. Isangqa sabizwa ngokuba ngoyisithuthuthu. Iziko leebhayisekile lijikeleza ngokungafaniyo kwaye Ivumela ukuba icacisele uClaudius Ptolemy ngazo zonke izitenxo ezinokuthi ziqwalaselwe ekuhambeni kwezidalwa zasezulwini.

Inkqubo kaClaudius Ptolemy

umfuziselo wendalo iphela

Le nkqubo yakwazi ukubonelela ngokuchazwa kwazo zonke iiplanethi ezihambelana kakuhle nemigaqo ye-Aristotelian cosmology eyayikho ngelo xesha. Ikwahleli iyimodeli yodwa de kwaba lixesha loKuqala. Ngexesha lokuzalwa kwakhona, Kwakukho ubuchwephesha obukhulu ngakumbi xa ujonga iinkwenkwezi Kwaye kwabakho ulwazi ngakumbi ngenxa yokuqwalaselwa kweenkwenkwezi. Uninzi lolwazi malunga neenkwenkwezi ngeli xesha lwenziwa ekupheleni kwexesha eliphakathi. Ngolu lwazi, kuye kwafuneka ukwazisa uninzi lweeepicycle ezintsha ezenza yonke into enxulumene ne-astronomy ukuba nzima ukuyiqonda.

Ngapha koko, imodeli yelanga ifunyenwe ICopernicus Yayingumsebenzi owaqala ukunyamalala kwayo yonke i-astronomy kaClaudius Ptolemy kuba yayinokulula ngakumbi okuthathwa njengelinye lawona mandla aphambili.

Kodwa gcinani engqondweni ukuba uClaudius Ptolemy Wayengenguye kuphela isazi ngeenkwenkwezi kodwa wayekwindawo yokuma komhlaba. Ngenxa yolwazi lwakhe ngejografi wakwazi ukwenza ifuthe elikhulu ngenxa yokufumanisa okukhulu kwejografi. Kumsebenzi wakhe we-8 wevolumu ebizwa IJografi Iindlela zeMathematika zaqulunqelwa ukuzoba iimephu ezahlukeneyo ezichanekileyo kusetyenziswa iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zokuqikelela. Ikwaqokelela ingqokelela ebanzi yolungelelwaniso olufunekayo nolungqamanayo lendawo kunye neendawo ezahlukeneyo kwihlabathi elalisaziwa ngelo xesha.

Ukucacisa lo msebenzi, uClaudius Ptolemy wamkela uqikelelo olwenziwe nguPosidonius malunga nokujikeleza koMhlaba. Olu qikelelo belungaphantsi kwexabiso eliyinyani kwaye lubaxekile ubungakanani belizwekazi lase-Eurasian kwicala elisempuma-ntshona. Le meko yazisa uChristopher Columbus ukuba athathe uhambo lwakhe, olwaluza kufumanisa iMelika.

Eminye imisebenzi

Omnye wemisebenzi kaClaudio Ptolemy Yahlulwe yangamanani ayi-5 kwaye yaziwa ngegama lika I-Optics. Watsho umsebenzi waleya ithiyori yezibuko kunye nokubonakalisa kunye nokukhanya kokukhanya. Ezi zinto zenzeka ngokwasemzimbeni kwaye iziphumo ezazinazo kubo zaqwalaselwa ngokujongwa kweenkwenkwezi. Ukwabizwa ngokuba ngumlobi wencwadi yokuvumisa ngeenkwenkwezi ebizwa Iitetrabiblos eyayizisa zonke iimpawu kunye neminye imibhalo kwaye yayixabisa kakhulu indawo eyayinayo kumaXesha Aphakathi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga ne-biografi kunye nokusetyenziswa nguClaudio Ptolemy.


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