Kun kasance ilimin ƙasa

Juyin Halitta na Duniya

Ana tsammanin duniyarmu an haife ta kusan shekaru biliyan 4.500 da suka wuce. Hanyar da ta waiwaya baya baya rasa nasaba da abinda muka sani a yau. Haɗin kan duwatsu ne kawai wanda cikin sa yayi zafi kuma ya haifar da haɗakar dukkan abubuwan. Yayin da yake sanyaya, sai shimfidar waje tayi karfi kuma zafin da ya zo daga tsakiyar duniyar ya sake narkar da su. Da zarar duniya ta sami tabbaci, abin da muka sani a matsayin kun kasance ilimin kasa.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da manyan tsarukan ƙasa.

Asalin duniya

Asalin duniya

Yana da mahimmanci a san cewa la'akari da zamanin binciken kasa, ma'aunin lokacin ilimin kasa. Lokacin da Duniya ba komai ba ce face haɗuwa da narkakken duwatsu, ba za ku iya ɗaukar ɗaya kamar duniya ba. Tsarin sanyaya da dumama duwatsu ya ci gaba har zuwa lokacin da zafin jiki ya sauka a farfajiyar har ya kai ga a Dunƙulen duniya barga Wannan ya faru kimanin shekaru biliyan 3.800 da suka gabata.. A wannan lokacin, yanayin da muka san shi bai riga ya faɗi ba kuma yawancin meteorites sun bugu da Earthasa.

Kari kan haka, dole ne mu kara da cewa dutsen mai fitad da wuta yana aiki sosai, don haka lawa ta gudana a saman cikin manyan mutane kuma ya sa zafin ya yi yawa. Ilimin kimiya yayi kokarin yin nazari akan dukkan tsaran ilimin kasa wadanda sune suke nuna yadda duniyarmu take jujjuya rayuwa tsawon lokaci. Wadannan binciken sun kasance masu yiwuwa ne sakamakon nazarin duwatsu da burbushin halittu wadanda ke cikin wasu.

Bayan nazarin kankara, za'a iya sanin bayanai daban-daban, kamar:

  • Shekarun mu nawa.
  • Yanayin zafi da ya wanzu a cikin zamunna daban-daban wanda muka wuce.
  • Motsi waɗanda aka rubuta a cikin ɓawon burodi na duniya kuma hakan ya haifar da samuwar tsaunuka da damuwa.
  • Bambancin rarraba ƙasa da teku a doron ƙasa. Waɗannan ba su da karko yayin kowane lokaci.

An kirga shekarun duniya albarkacin tsarin mulki na kayan aikin rediyo da ke cikin duwatsu. Kwayoyin uranium sun canza zuwa atomatik masu sarrafawa akai-akai. Idan ka gwada adadin gubar a cikin dutse a cikin ma'adanin uranium, zaka iya lissafa lokacin da dutsen da ke ciki ya samu. Wannan shine yadda ake samun bayanai daga abubuwan da suka gabata.

Nazarin shekarun ilimin ƙasa

Tsamiya

Hakanan ana nazarin burbushin halittu daban-daban waɗanda ke cikin duwatsun da ke cikin ƙasa. Godiya ga waɗannan burbushin, an gano nau'ikan dabbobi da tsire-tsire waɗanda suka rayu a waɗannan lokutan. Kari akan wannan, zaku iya sanin yanayin da ya kasance a yankuna daban-daban sakamakon wanzuwar wasu nau'ikan dabbobi da tsirrai ta hanyar nazarin ilimin su.

Burbushin halittu suna da yawa a cikin duwatsu masu laushi. Burbushin ba komai bane face ragowar dabbobi ko asalin shuke-shuke da aka adana karkashin ɓawon doron ƙasa lokacin da ake kirkirar duwatsun da ke kwance a ƙasa. A kowane zamani da ya shude duniyarmu, wasu dabbobin da dabbobin da aka saba dasu sun rayu wadanda basu nacewa wasu ba. Wannan shine yadda masana ilimin ƙasa zasu iya tantance lokacin da aka kafa wani dutse. Godiya ga daukaka na burbushin halittu zaka iya sanin zamanin dutsen.

Canjin halittar wannan duniyar tamu an sake sake shi saboda godiyar yanayin kasa. Duwatsu masu tsayi sune waɗanda aka ajiye a ƙasan tekuna da tabkuna na miliyoyin shekaru da miliyoyi. Duwatsu suna ba mu bayani kamar suna shafukan littafi ne. Ta wata hanyar da zai yiwu a san cewa juyin halittar duniyar tamu ya kunshi manyan matakai guda 4 wadanda ake kira su da yanayin kasa. Waɗannan zamanin ilimin ƙasa sune: Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, da Cenozoic.

Ya kasance proterozoic

Kun kasance ilimin ƙasa

Wannan an raba ta zuwa matakai biyu da aka sani da Archaic da Precambrian. A zamanin da muna da farkon tarihi inda Duniya ta kasance wani yanki ne na iskar gas mai kama da hasken rana. A cikin wannan matakin akwai tsarin teku da bayyanuwar farko na rayuwa. Duwatsun da suka yi farfajiyar sun ci gaba da sanyi kuma yanayin ya kasance.

A cikin Precambrian, dunƙulen ƙasa ba shi da ƙarfi kuma ya ƙunshi galibi na granites da basalts. A wannan matakin, wakilai daban-daban na waje kamar su ruwan sama, iska da bambance-bambancen zafin jiki sun afkawa yankuna da yawa na Duniya wanda ya haifar da matsakaiciyar ƙasa. Siffofin rayuwa waɗanda aka bayyana a cikin surar ƙwayoyin halitta marasa kama da ƙwayoyin cuta na yau. Wadannan kwayoyin basu iya barin sawun burbushi ba.

Zamanin Paleozoic

Zamanin Mesozoic

A wannan zamanin, ƙasashen da suka rigaya sun sami kuzari suna da manyan lalatattun abubuwa. Hakanan duwatsu sun kasance farkon farar ƙasa, marmara da nau'ikan ma'adini. A wannan zamanin ne aka sami duwatsu masu wadataccen carbon. Ya kasance akwai tsarkakewar yanayi sakamakon yaduwar tsire-tsire.

Wannan zamanin ana ɗaukarsa azaman zamanin kifi da na manyan ferns. Tsawon lokaci babu manyan matsaloli a Duniya. Ana ɗauka ɗayan ɗayan tsararrun ilimin ƙasa. Zaizayar kasa kuma yana matukar rage taimakon yankunan da suka fito daga tekuna.

Zamanin Mesozoic

A cikin Zamanin Mesozoic an samar dashi babban fashewar babbar nahiyar da ake kira Pangea. Anan ne ka'idar Farantin Tectonic. Yanayin duniyarmu yana canzawa sau da yawa daga danshi zuwa hamada. Anan ne inda dabbobi ke samun sauye-sauye koyaushe da sauyawa zuwa yanayin canzawa. Samuwar mai shima ya fara.

Zamanin Cenozoic

A lokacin wannan zamanin wanda yakai shekaru miliyan 60 na ƙarshe A nan ne halittu masu kama da mutum suka fara bayyana. Tun daga ƙarshen shekarun ƙanƙarar ƙarshe ne maza suka fara tafiyar hawainiya zuwa wayewa.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyon abubuwa daban-daban.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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