Zamanin Mesozoic: duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani

Mesozoic

Bayan ganin komai game dashi Precambrian eon, Muna matsawa gaba don zuwa lokaci da Mesozoic. Bin jagororin lokacin ilimin kasa, Mesozoic zamani ne da aka sani da zamanin dinosaur. Ya ƙunshi lokuta uku da ake kira Triassic, Jurassic da Cretaceous. A wannan zamanin, al'amuran da yawa sun faru a duniyar mu wanda zamu gani dalla-dalla a cikin wannan sakon.

Shin kuna son sanin duk abin da ya faru a cikin Mesozoic? Yakamata ku ci gaba da karatu.

Gabatarwar

Lokacin Jurassic

Mesozoic ya faru tsakanin kusan Shekaru miliyan 245 kuma ya wanzu har zuwa shekaru miliyan 65 da suka gabata. Wannan zamanin ya kasance gaba ɗaya kimanin shekaru miliyan 180. Yayin wannan lokaci vertebrates sun haɓaka, sun bambanta, kuma sun mamaye duk wurare a Duniya.

Godiya ga ci gaban gabobi guda biyar, sabon yanayin halittar kwayoyin halitta ya fara kirkira. Da wannan ne fara halittar gabobi a matsayin babban matakin juyin halitta. Kwakwalwa ita ce gabar da take bayar da cigaba sosai a tarihi.

Gwargwadon ƙwayoyin halitta ya zama cibiyar daidaitawa da karɓar duk bayanan. An dauke shi kwakwalwar sel, amma mutum zai fara magana game da kwakwalwa a cikin kifi. A wannan lokacin sauye-sauyen halittun amphibians, dabbobi masu rarrafe, tsuntsaye da dabbobi masu shayarwa suna faruwa inda kwakwalwa ke ci gaba da horarwa don ɗaukar bayanai da yawa.

A wannan zamanin nahiyoyin da tsibiran da suka taru a cikin Pangea sun fara ɗaukar bayyanar su yanzu da kaɗan. Movementsungiyoyin manyan maganganu ba sa faruwa kuma iklima gabaɗaya tabbatacciya ce, mai zafi da ɗumi. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa dabbobi masu rarrafe suka sami ci gaba mai ban mamaki har zuwa dinosaur. Girman waɗannan dabbobi ya yi girma kuma, saboda yawaitar su, ana kuma kiran Mesozoic da Age of dabbobi masu rarrafe.

Dabbobi masu rarrafe da dinosaur

Ci gaban dinosaur

Wasu dabbobi masu rarrafe sun koyi tashi. Dole ne a ambata cewa, kamar yadda yake a kowane zamani da lokaci, akwai ƙarancin ƙungiyoyin dabbobi kamar su trilobites, graptolites da kifi mai sulke.

A gefe guda, an sabunta flora da fauna. Gymnosperms ya bayyana (shuke-shuke na jijiyoyin jini wadanda ke samar da tsaba amma basu da furanni). Waɗannan tsire-tsire sun ƙaura da ferns. A ƙarshen Zamani, tsire-tsire da ake kira angiosperms sun bayyana. Su ne mafi kyaun tsire-tsire masu jijiyoyin jini waɗanda ke da ƙwai da ƙwayaye a ciki. Bugu da kari, suna da furanni da ‘ya’yan itace.

Wannan babban tsalle-tsalle na juyin halitta ya yi tasiri sosai a rayuwar dabbobi, tunda shuke-shuke sune tushen tushen abinci da abinci ga yawancinsu. Hakanan angiosperms sune abubuwan kwantar da hankali ga mutane, tunda mafi yawan albarkatu a duniya suna zuwa ne daga garesu.

Babban babba dabbobi masu rarrafe ko kuma wadanda ake kira dinosaur sun mamaye duniya da iska na miliyoyin shekaru. Su ne dabbobin da suka fi ci gaba. Arshenta ya zo tare da ƙarshen Mesozoic. Yayin wannan halaka ta jama'a, manyan ƙungiyoyin ɓarna sun ɓace.

Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, zamanin Mesozoic ya kasu kashi uku: Triassic, Jurassic, da Cretaceous. Bari mu ga kowane ɗayansu daki-daki.

Lokacin Triassic

Rabuwa da Pangea

Ya ɗauki wuri kamar 245 zuwa shekaru miliyan 213. A wannan lokacin an haifi ammonoids na farko. Dinosaur din suna bayyana da kuma rarraba abubuwa. Kimanin shekaru miliyan 230 da suka wuce, duwaiwan dabbobi masu rarrafe sun iya daidaitawa don tsere mafi sauri. Kari akan haka, kimanin shekaru miliyan 205 da suka gabata halittar farko (dabbobi masu rarrafe) sun bayyana.

Triassic shine alamar farkon dabbobi na gaskiya da tsuntsaye na farko. Tsuntsaye sun tashi daga masu cin nama, haske, dinosaur bipedal. Dinosaur din sun sami damar yin amfani da iska kuma suka cinye yanayin iska. Don wannan, a hankali aka juye zuwa gaban goshi zuwa fukafukai don jirgi kuma na baya sun zama sirara da haske.

A gefe guda kuma, jikinsa ya kasance mai rufe da gashinsa masu kariya da masu hana ruwa kuma a hankali ya zama karami da haske. Dukkanin kwayoyin halittarsa ​​sun dace da tsawan tsawan jirage.

Amma ga ƙasar, mafi yawan bishiyoyi sun kasance basu da kyawu, mafi yawa conifers da ginkgos. Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, a lokacin Triassic, Pangea ya kasu zuwa manyan kasashen biyu da ake kira Laurasia da Gondwana.

Lokacin Jurassic

Jurassic

Lokacin Jurassic ya faru kusan 213 zuwa shekaru miliyan 144. Kamar yadda kuke gani a cikin fina-finai, wannan shine zamanin zinariya na dinosaur. Wannan saboda yanayin yana da zafi sosai kuma yana son ci gaban sa. Hakanan an sami fifikon ci gaban ciyayi mai daɗi da yaɗuwarsa.

Yayin da nahiyoyin suka rabu, tekuna suna girma suna hadewa, yayin da mara zurfi da dumi na ruwan teku ya bazu zuwa Turai da sauran filaye. A ƙarshen Jurassic, waɗannan tekuna sun fara bushewa, suna barin manyan duwatsu na dutsen farar ƙasa wanda ya fito daga dutsen murjani da invertebrates na ruwa.

Yankin dinosaur ya mamaye yankin, yayin da adadin dinosaur na cikin teku ya karu kamar ichthyosaurs da plesiosaurs. Kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, dinosaur sun iya yaduwa ta dukkan hanyoyin uku. Dabbobi masu shayarwa sun kasance ƙananan a wannan lokacin. Murjannun da suka haɗu da manyan duwatsu sun girma cikin zurfin ruwa kusa da bakin tekun.

Lokacin Cretaceous

Retarewar Cretaceous

Cretaceous ya faru kusan 145 zuwa shekaru miliyan 65. Lokaci ne wanda yake nuna ƙarshen Mesozoic da farkon Cenozoic. A wannan lokacin akwai babbar halaka ta rayayyun halittu inda dinosaur suka ɓace kuma 75% na dukkan invertebrates. Wani sabon juyi ya fara dangane da shuke-shuken furanni, dabbobi masu shayarwa da tsuntsaye.

Masana kimiyya sun yi hasashe kan musabbabin bacewar. Ka'idar da ta fi yaduwa ita ce, an kara canje-canje a yanayi, yanayi da nauyi da ke faruwa a wannan lokacin faɗuwar katuwar meteorite a zirin Yucatan. Wannan meteorite ya canza yanayin rayuwar Duniya sosai kuma ya haifar da ƙarewa saboda rashin dacewa da sababbin yanayin. Saboda wannan dalili, layin juyin halittar duniya ya maida hankali kan yaduwar tsuntsaye da dabbobi masu shayarwa.

Tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya samun ƙarin sani game da Mesozoic.


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  1.   Mauro neumann m

    Abune mai matukar ban sha'awa, cikakken bayanin bayyane na kowane zamani da zamani, na gode, na gode sosai!