Ma'adanai

Ma'adanai

La ilimin dabbobi shine ilimin kimiyya da aka samo daga ilimin geology wanda ke mayar da hankali kan nazari da halayyar ma'adinai. Ma'adinai ba komai bane face kamala mai kama da kama ɗaya wanda ke da tabbataccen hukuncin abin da ya ƙunsa wanda ba a gyara shi ba. Hakanan yana da tsari na atomic tsari kuma gabaɗaya an ƙirƙira shi ta hanyar tsarin asalin halitta.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku abin da nazarin ilimin ma'adanai da mahimmancinsa a matakin kimiyya.

Ma'adanai

Samuwar ma'adinai

Yawancin lokaci an sami rabe-raben ma'adanai daban-daban amma tun daga tsakiyar ƙarni na XNUMX lokacin da abubuwan da ke cikin sinadaran suka kasance babban ma'auni don rabe-rabensu. An rarraba ma'adanai bisa ga jirgin sama ko ƙungiyoyin anionic waɗanda suka fi yawa a cikin abubuwan sunadarai. Ta wannan hanyar, ba mu sami ma'anar azuzuwan ma'adanai waɗanda ke da halaye iri ɗaya ba. Misali, daya daga cikin halayen da zasu iya kamanni daya ko sama da rukuni na ma'adanai shine gaskiyar cewa suna faruwa ne a cikin nau'ikan adana.

Babban darasin da aka gani a cikin ilimin ma'adinan sune:

  • Abubuwan asali
  • Sulfides da sulfosalts
  • Oxides da hydroxides
  • Halides
  • Carbonates
  • Nitrates
  • Sulfates
  • Silicates
  • Borates
  • Phosphates

A cikin ilimin ma'adinai, fitowar ma'adinai galibi ana aiki. Wannan fitowar ma'adinai ana yin ta ne a visu. Game da fahimtar ma'adanai ne a cikin samfurin hannu. Yana da matukar amfani a fagen aikin masanin kasa, tunda yana bada damar kusantar farko zuwa nau'in kayan ilimin kasa wanda ake lura dasu. Kada mu manta cewa dutse ya kunshi gungun ma'adanai.

Aiwatar da Ma'adanai

Nazarin ma'adanai

Abubuwan da ake buƙata da aka yi amfani da su a cikin visu don gano ma'adinai shine gilashin ƙara girman abu, ƙaramar reza ko fayel, maganadisu, da kuma jagorar ma'adinai. Kadarorin ma'adanai sune waɗanda za'a iya gane su ta hanyar dubawa ta sauƙi ko ta wasu gwaji masu sauƙi.

Abu na farko da zaka kalla game da ma'adinai shine fasalinsa. Zamu iya ganin ci gaban fuskar kristal na ma'adinai. Idan muka lura da ma'adinan da aka ƙera da kyau zamu iya ganin cewa sifar ta waje tana ɗauke da saitin fuskoki waɗanda suke samar da wani polyhedron. Dogaro da wannan nau'in polyhedron da yanayin halayyar fuskoki, za mu iya zaɓar nau'in ma'adinai waɗanda za mu samu. Wannan mahimmin ma'auni ne a cikin shaidar ku. Bari mu ba da misali: idan muka ga pyrite da galena za mu iya lura da prisms tare da kyakkyawan yanayi a aragonite, rhombohedra a cikin lissafi, da dai sauransu. Koyaya, abu ne sananne cewa ma'adanai basa iya haɓaka fuskoki masu kyau saboda yanayin haɓaka. A cikin waɗannan sharuɗɗan ana kiran lu'ulu'u allotriomorphs.

Abu na biyu da aka bincika a cikin visu ma'adinan al'ada ne. Ci gaban dangi ne na saitin fuskokin kristal. Wannan ya shafi duka lu'ulu'un mutum ne, masu ƙirar lu'ulu'u. Taimakon ɗayan al'ada ko wata ya dogara ne da yanayin haɓakar ma'adinai. Idan muna da ma'adinai waɗanda suka samo asali tare da saurin saurin sanyaya, kamar yadda zai iya faruwa da duwatsun dutse, za mu iya ganin lu'ulu'u an kirkiresu gaba ɗaya. A gefe guda, idan muna da duwatsun da sanyayarsu ta kasance mai ci gaba sosai, za mu iya samun ƙananan ƙararrun abubuwa masu ƙyalƙyali.

Canje-canje a cikin ilimin ma'adinai

Kimiyyar ilimin halittu

Launi

Launin ma'adinai na iya zama iri-iri. Dalilin shi yana da launi daya ko wata na iya zama saboda dalilai daban-daban, kodayake galibi galibi saboda kasancewar wasu abubuwa da ake kira chromophores kamar ƙarfe, chromium, cobalt, jan ƙarfe, da sauransu. Yana daya daga cikin mahimman canje-canje yayin tantance nau'in ma'adinai. Ana amfani da launuka daban-daban a cikin ma'adinan don tantance waɗannan ma'adanai.

Dole ne a yi la'akari da cewa a lokuta da yawa ana canza saman saman ma'adinai saboda kasancewar wasu ƙazamta kuma basa gabatar da asalin launi.

Raya

Theararren mai canzawa ne wanda ake nazarinsa kamar dai launinsa ne na ɗayan. Yana nufin launin da ma'adinan ke ɗauka lokacin da aka niƙa shi. Udurin gudanawar ana yin sa ne ta hanyar gyaɗawa tare da ma'adinai a kan wani kwanon ruɓaɓɓen kwanon ruɓaɓɓen furotin. Da zarar an gama wannan, ana lura da launi na layin. Raunuka waɗanda ke da launi mai ma'ana kuma suna da ƙarfi za su kasance na al'ada na ma'adanai na ƙarfe kamar sulfides.

A gefe guda, ma'adinan da ba na ƙarfe ba kamar silicates ko carbonates koyaushe suna da layin fari ko haske mai haske ƙwarai.

Haske

Haske shine bayyanar saman ma'adinai lokacin da haske ya sauka akan sa. Wannan sheki na iya zama na ƙarfe ne, ƙaramin ƙarfe ne da wanda ba na ƙarfe ba. Larfin ƙarfe ya fi yawa a cikin ma'adanai waɗanda ba su da kyau kuma suna da ƙimar nuna ƙyama ƙasa da 3. Misali muna da pyrite, galena, zinariya ko azurfa. A gefe guda, muna da luster mara ƙarfe wanda ya fi dacewa da ma'adinai masu haske waɗanda ke da ƙimar ƙarancin ƙasa da 2.6.

Anan zamu iya ganin nau'ikan haske: luster na lu'u-lu'u, mai haske, mai haske, mai ƙwanƙwasawa, mai ƙwanƙwasa lu'u-lu'u, silky, da dai sauransu.

Specific nauyi

Hakanan za'a iya auna takamaiman nauyi a matsayin nauyin ma'adinai kuma dangantaka ce tsakanin nauyi da nauyin juzu'i daidai da ruwa digiri 4. Don fahimtar wannan za mu ba da misali. Idan abin sha zuwa ja musamman nauyi daidai yake da 2 zamu iya cewa samfurin da aka bayar na ma'adinai da aka fadi ya ninka sau biyu yadda nauyin ruwa daidai yake.

Wannan takamaiman nauyin an tantance shi ta hanyar abun da ke ciki kuma yana da tsayayye. Saboda haka, ya zama canji mai amfani sosai don ganowa. Kada mu manta cewa don ilimin ma'adinan, a cikin gani visu, ba a yin ƙayyadadden ƙayyadadden nauyin ma'adinai, amma yana yiwuwa a yi ƙididdigar ƙimar dangin ta.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da ilimin ma'adinai.


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