Alpes

Ofayan sanannun tsarin tsaunuka a duniya kuma wanda ke cikin Turai shine Alpes. Yankin tsauni ne wanda ake ɗauka mafi tsayi a Turai kuma ya faɗaɗa cikin ƙasashe 8. Ya ratsa ta Austria, Faransa, Jamus, Monaco, Switzerland, Slovenia, Italia da Liechtenstein. Gaskiya kasashen da suke da pines suna dauke su Austria da Switzerland. Saboda wannan dalili, ana kuma kiransa Alps na Switzerland. Waɗannan tsaunukan suna da matsayi mai mahimmanci a cikin labarin ƙasashe kuma yawancin al'adun suna da asalinsu a wannan tsaunin.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk halaye, samuwar yanayi, ilimin ƙasa da dabbobi na tsaunukan Alps.

Babban fasali

glaciers a cikin tsaunuka

Yankin tsaunuka masu tsayi suna da kyau kuma sun tsara al'adun ƙasashe da yawa. Wadannan shimfidar wurare suna nan a cikin yankuna da yawa na tsaunuka da biranen yankin waɗanda suka zama sanannen wurin yawon buɗe ido. A cikin wadannan yankuna, wasan kankara, hawan dutse da yawo kuma yana da masu yawon bude ido sama da miliyan 100 kowace shekara.

Na farko suna da juzu'iyya a cikin baka mai fiye da kilomita 800 a kudu maso gabashin Turai. Ya faɗaɗa daga yankin Tekun Bahar Rum zuwa yankin Tekun Adriatic. An yi la'akari da shi azaman tsakiyar sauran tsarin tsaunuka irin su tsaunukan Carpathian da Apennine. Ba mu same shi a cikin dukan tsaunukansa ba Monte Cervino, Massif del Monte Rosa, da Dom, Mont Blanc shine mafi girman ganuwa, yayin da Matterhorn shine mafi kyawun sananne saboda yanayinsa. Duk waɗannan halayen suna sanya Alps a matsayin ɗayan sanannun tsarin tsaunuka a duniya.

Asalin kalmar ga Alps yanzu an san ta daidai. Zai iya zuwa daga kalmar Celtic wanda ke nufin fari ko tsayi. An samo kalmar kai tsaye daga kalmar Latin ta Alps, ta Faransanci. Dukan yankin Alps ya kasance wuri ne inda yawancin mutane suka zauna daga Marigayi Paleolithic har zuwa yau. A cikin zaku iya ganin yadda Kiristanci yake samun nasara a Turai kuma an kafa gidajen ibada da yawa a cikin tsaunuka. An gina wasu daga cikinsu a cikin mafi girman yankuna kuma garuruwan sun sami damar haɓaka kewaye da su.

Tarihi ya gaya mana cewa Alps an dauke su a matsayin shinge mai wahala don shawo kan shiga wasu yankuna da wuraren addini. Hakanan an dauke su wurare masu hatsari saboda yawan ambaliyar ruwa da wuraren ban mamaki. Ya riga ya kasance a karni na sha tara lokacin da fasaha zata iya ba da izinin bincike.

Geology na Alps

Alpes

Dukan tsaunukan tsaunukan Alps suna da nisan sama da kilomita 1.200 kuma yana kan Turai gaba ɗaya. Wasu daga kololuwarsa ya wuce mita 3.500 a tsayi kuma yana da fiye da kankara 1.200. Matsayin dusar ƙanƙan yana kusan mita 2.400, don haka yana da isassun wuraren yin yawon shakatawa na dusar ƙanƙara. Kololuwar ta kasance har abada da dusar ƙanƙara, suna yin manyan dusar ƙanƙara kuma sun kasance sama da mita 3.500 a tsawa. An fi sani da glacier mafi girma a duniya kamar Aletsch.

An yi la'akari da shi azaman tsakiyar sauran tsarin tsaunuka kamar su tsaunukan tsaunukan tsaunukan Alps da ke cikin yankin Jura massif. Wasu sassan wannan tsaunin suna fadada ta bangarorin Hungary, Serbia, Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, da Montenegro.

Ta mahangar kasa, za mu iya raba wannan dutsen zuwa sashi: tsakiya, yamma da kuma gabas. A kowane ɗayan waɗannan ɓangarorin zuwa ƙananan ƙananan yankuna ko ƙananan rukuni na tsaunuka. A yanayin kasa kuma zamu iya rarrabe kudu masu tsaunuka wadanda iyakarsu da sauran sauran yankuna sune kwarin Valtelina, Pusteria da Gailtal. A kudu maso yamma a can akwai Tekun Alps wanda ke kusa da Tekun Bahar Rum kuma ya samar da iyaka tsakanin Faransa da Italiya. A zahiri, ƙwanƙolin Mont Blanc sananne ne tsakanin Faransa da Italiya kuma yana ƙunshe da mafi ƙanƙan haske a duk Faransa. Yammacin sashin sashen wannan tsaunin ya fadada zuwa kudu maso yamma na Switzerland.

Wasu daga cikin mahimman ruwa a nahiyar Turai, kamar su Rhone, da Rhine, da Eno da Drava, sun samo asali ne ko kuma sun ratsa ta tsaunukan Alps kuma suna kwarara zuwa Bahar Maliya, Bahar Rum da Tekun Arewa.

Samuwar Alps

Alif din Switzerland

Ganin girman wannan tsaunin, samuwarta wani bangare ne na hadadden tsarin kasa. Masana ilimin ƙasa suna tunanin hakan ya ɗauki kusan shekaru 100 kafin ya fahimci girman duk abubuwan da suka shafi ƙasa wanda ya haifar da tsaunukan Alps. Idan muka rage shi zuwa asalin zamu ga cewa tsohon an ƙirƙira shi ne saboda karo da ya faru tsakanin Eurasia da Afirka tectonic plate. Waɗannan faranti biyu masu faɗakarwa sun haifar da rashin kwanciyar hankali da tudu. An kammala aikin cikin biyu ko sama da murfin da ya ɗauki shekaru miliyan da yawa.

An kiyasta cewa duk wannan maganganun daga ƙarshe ya fara kimanin shekaru miliyan 300 da suka gabata. Farantin Tectonic sun fara cin karo a ƙarshen lokacin aiki. Rushewar waɗannan faranti masu faɗin tekun biyu ya haifar da rufewa da rinjayar yawancin filin da ya dace da tekun Tethys da ke tsaye tsakanin faranti biyu. Theulli da duarfafawar ya faru yayin Miocene da kuma Oligocene. Masana kimiyya sun sami damar gano nau'ikan duwatsu daban-daban wadanda ke ragargaza faranti biyu, wanda shine dalilin da ya sa aka tabbatar da cewa akwai wata damuwa da za ta iya tayar da kasa da samar da wannan tsaunin. Hakanan sun sami nasarar gano wasu sassa na tsohuwar kasan tekun mallakar Tethys.

Flora da fauna

Babban maƙasudin yawon shakatawa shine flora da fauna ban da kyawawan shimfidar wurare. Akwai halittu masu rai irin su tsaunuka masu kaifi, kwari, dogayen filaye, gandun daji da wasu gangaren tudu. Narkewar kankarar ya haifar da wasu tabkuna tare da ruwa mai natsuwa wanda ke fifita cigaban fure da dabbobi.

Akwai bambanci sosai a waɗannan wuraren. Wasu daga cikin nau'ikan tudu masu tsayi sune akuya ko kuma akuyar daji ta tsaun tsafin Alps. Hakanan akwai wasu dabbobin kamar su kwarjinin, da gemu da gemu, da marmot, da katantanwa, da asu, da sauran ɓarna. Wolves, Bears da lynxes suna dawowa zuwa tsaunukan Alps bayan an cire su kusan saboda barazanar mutane. Wannan ya sake zama wurin zama a gare su saboda kariyar wasu wurare na halitta.

A cikin flora mun sami filaye da yawa da gandun daji masu yawan bishiyoyi, itacen oak, firs da wasu furannin daji. An kiyasta cewa akwai wasu nau'in daji dubu 30.000.

Ina fatan cewa da wannan bayanin za ku iya koyo game da tsaunukan tsaunukan Alps.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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