Siyini isiqhingi

yini isiqhingi

Uma sikhuluma ngamafomu e-geological ahlukene akhona, siyabona ukuthi lezi ziqhingi zingesinye sezihehe kakhulu ngokubuka kwabavakashi. Futhi ukuthi lezi ziqhingi zigcina izici ezihlukile nezinhlelo zemvelo okufanele zikwazi ngempela. Kodwa-ke, akuwona wonke umuntu owazi kahle yini isiqhingi. Zinezici zokuma komhlaba kanye nezimo ezithile okumele kuhlangatshezwane nazo ukwenza njalo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi siyini isiqhingi, yiziphi izici zaso nemvelaphi yaso.

Siyini isiqhingi

izinhlobo zeziqhingi

Isiqhingi yizwe elizungezwe ngokuphelele ngamanzi, elincane kunelizwekazi. Lapho iziqhingi eziningana zisondelene, zibizwa ngokuthi iqembu leziqhingi.

Kunezinhlobo eziningana zeziqhingi ngokwendlela ezibukeka ngayo, nosayizi wazo nobukhulu bazo obuhlukile. Amakhulu kunawo wonke yiGreenland, iMadagascar, iNew Guinea, iBorneo, iSumatra nesiQhingi saseBaffin, kanti amancane kunazo zonke maningi kakhulu ngoba awahlakazekile nje kuphela maphakathi nolwandle, kepha nasemachibini ngisho nasemifuleni. Lezi ziqhingi imvamisa ziyizicucu zomhlaba, imvamisa zingenampilo yomuntu, kepha zinezitshalo nezinye izilwane.

Iziqhingi ezincane zibizwa ngokuthi iziqhingana, ngokuvamile ezingenabantu, kodwa ngezitshalo nezilwane. Iziqhingi zivame ukuhlotshaniswa nomqondo wepharadesi. Zibuye zihlobene nesizungu nokuba khona kwempilo yobuntombi. Zibaluleke kakhulu kubantu. Amazwe amaningi azinze esiqhingini esisodwa noma eziningi futhi angaba nokufaneleka okuphezulu kwezomnotho njengoba kwenzeka eJapane. IJapan yisizwe esifakwe kwezinye iziqhingi zoLwandlekazi iPacific futhi namuhla sigqamile ngobuciko nomnotho waso. Intuthuko yezobuchwepheshe eJapan ithuthuke ngaphandle kwenkinga yize yathuthukisa izwe laba yisiqhingi.

Ukwazi ngokujule ukuthi siyini isiqhingi, sizobona kancane noma kancane incazelo enikezwa ngokuya ngeMillennium Systems Assessment. Lawa ngamazwe angawodwa azungezwe ngamanzi, ahlala abantu futhi ahlukaniswe nezwekazi okungenani amakhilomitha ama-2. Ubukhulu bayo kufanele bulingane noma bube ngaphezulu kwamakhilomitha ayi-0.15. Kumele kukhunjulwe ukuthi iziqhingi eziningi ziyizindawo ezigcwele zigcwele izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo nezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Uhlobo lwendalo kuphela olukhethekile emvelweni futhi olungakwazi ukuba kwenye indawo ngoba ludinga lezi zimo ukuze luphile. Isibonelo, i-lemur yisilwane esitholakala kuphela eMadagascar, esiqhingini.

Siyini isiqhingi: ukwakheka

siyini isiqhingi nezici zaso

Lapho sesazi ukuthi siyini isiqhingi, sizozama ukuchaza ukwakheka kwaso. Iziqhingi bezikhona ngoba ama-plate tectonics eplanethi yethu ahlala ehamba njalo. Siyakhumbula ukuthi iplanethi enguMhlaba inamabhokisi amaningi akhiwe ngezinto ezahlukene. Ingubo yoMhlaba yakhiwe yimisinga ye I-convection ngenxa yokwehluka kobuningi bezinto zokwakha futhi lokhu kubangela ukuthi uqweqwe lwamazwekazi lushintshe. Lesi sigaxa sakhiwe ngamapuleti we-tectonic futhi ahamba ngokuqhubekayo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Iziqhingi nazo zihamba namapuleti ama-tectonic. Kwesinye isikhathi ziyahlangana kanti kwesinye isikhathi ziyehlukana. Ngakho-ke, zingavela ngokuhamba kwezigidi zeminyaka eminingi ngenxa yezehlakalo zokwakheka komhlaba njengokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kwentaba yasolwandle. Kunezindlela eziningi lapho isiqhingi singakhiwa khona futhi kulokhu kubekwa ngezinhlobo ezahlukene.

Izinhlobo zeziqhingi

indawo epharadesi

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zeziqhingi ngokuya ngezici zazo. Lezi ziqhingi zehlukaniswe ngezinhlobo ezimbili ezinkulu okuyizwekazi kanye nolwandle. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izici zalowo nalowo kubo:

  • Iziqhingi zase-Continental: Bangabashalofu bezwekazi. Amaningi ayeyingxenye yezwekazi, kepha ahlukaniswa ngemuva kokunyuka kolwandle. Lolu hlobo yilokho okubizwa ngokuthi "isiqhingi samanzi", esenzeka lapho amagagasi amakhulu ehlanganisa ingxenye yomhlaba exhuma indawo eyodwa iye kwenye. Ngakho-ke, ingxenye yalo izungezwe ngamanzi. Iziqhingi ezivimbayo ziqukethe izingxenye zomhlaba ezihambisana nogu, eziningi zazo eziyingxenye yeshelufu lasezwenikazi. Zingaba ngumphumela wamaza olwandle acindezela isihlabathi nentlenga, noma izinto zokuncibilika esikhathini sokugcina seqhwa esidale ukukhuphuka kwezinga lolwandle. Izibonelo zalolu hlobo lweziqhingi yiGreenland neMadagascar.
  • Iziqhingi zase-Oceanic: Abayona ingxenye yeshalofu lasezwenikazi. Ezinye zibizwa nangokuthi iziqhingi zentaba-mlilo ngoba zakhiwa yinoma yiluphi uhlobo lwentaba-mlilo engaphansi kwamanzi. Iziqhingi zase-Oceanic zivame ukutholakala ezindaweni ezingaphansi lapho ipuleti elilodwa licwila ngaphansi kwelinye, noma lingakha futhi ezindaweni ezishisayo. Kulokhu, ipuleti lihamba ngaphezu kwalelo phuzu, njengoba umagma unyukela phezulu, okwenza uqweqwe lomhlaba lukhuphuke.

Ezinye iziqhingi zasolwandle zavela ekuhambeni kwamapuleti ama-tectonic njengoba ayephakama ngaphezu kolwandle. Kwesinye isikhathi amaqembu amakhulu ama-coral akha ama-coral amakhulu amakhulu. Lapho amathambo e-calcium alezi zilwane (akhiwe ikakhulu nge-calcium carbonate) enqwabelana ngokungahlukani kangangoba avela ngaphezu kolwandle, akha isiqhingi samakhorali. Vele, ezinye izinto zengezwa emathanjeni.

Uma amathambo eqoqana ezungeze iziqhingi zasolwandle (imvamisa izintaba-mlilo), ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, umhlabathi enkabeni uyacwila bese umbozwa ngamanzi ukwakha ichibi, umphumela uba isiqhingi. Isibonelo salolu hlobo lwesiqhingi iziQhingi zaseHawaii kanye neMaldives.

Iziqhingi zokufakelwa

Umuntu ukwazile ukudala iziqhingi ezingezona ezobuchwepheshe besimanje. Amapulatifomu enziwe ngezinto zensimbi nosimende angasebenza njenge-simulator eshalofini lasezwenikazi. Noma kunjalo, ingqikithi yesiqhingi ayisoze yafana noma ngabe umuntu uzama ukulingisa.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, lezi ziqhingi zithakazelisa impela ngokubuka komhlaba nokwakheka kwezinto eziphilayo. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngokuthi siyini isiqhingi nokuthi yiziphi izici zaso.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.