Isendlalelo se-ozone

ungqimba lwe-ozone lusivikela emisebeni yelanga ye-UV

Ngokuhlukile izingqimba zomkhathi  kukhona ungqimba lapho ukugxila kwe-ozone kuphakeme kakhulu emhlabeni wonke. Lolu ungqimba olubizwa nge-ozone. Le ndawo itholakala ku-stratosphere cishe ngamakhilomitha angama-60 ngaphezu kolwandle inemiphumela edingekayo empilweni emhlabeni.

Ngokukhishwa kwamagesi athile ayingozi emkhathini ngabantu, lolu ungqimba lwaba nokuncipha okubeka engcupheni umsebenzi walo wokuphila emhlabeni. Kodwa-ke, kuze kube namuhla kubonakala sengathi kuyaziphinda. Ngabe ufuna ukwazi ukuthi yimuphi umsebenzi ungqimba lwe-ozone nokuthi lubaluleke kangakanani kubantu?

Igesi le-ozone

i-ozone inokugxila kwayo okuphezulu kakhulu ku-stratosphere

Ukuqala ukwazi ukuthi ungqimba lwe-ozone lunamuphi umsebenzi, kufanele siqale sazi izakhiwo zegesi eliwenzayo: igesi le-ozone. I-formula yayo yamakhemikhali i-O3, futhi iyindlela ye-allotropic ye-oxygen, okungukuthi, enye yezindlela lapho itholakala khona emvelweni.

I-ozone igesi ebola ibe yi-oxygen ejwayelekile emazingeni okushisa ajwayelekile kanye nengcindezi. Ngokunjalo, ikhipha iphunga lesulfure elingene futhi umbala wayo uthambile ngokuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Ukube i-ozone ibingaphezulu komhlaba kungaba yingozi ezitshalweni nasezilwaneni. Kodwa-ke, ikhona ngokwemvelo kusendlalelo se-ozone futhi ngaphandle kwaleyo ngxube ephezulu yegesi ku-stratosphere besingeke sikwazi ukuphuma ngaphandle.

Indima yesendlalelo se-ozone

I-ozone ihlunga imisebe ye-UV evela elangeni

I-ozone ingumvikeli obalulekile wokuphila ebusweni bomhlaba. Lokhu kungenxa yokusebenza kwayo njengesihlungi esivikelayo emisebeni ye-ultraviolet evela eSun. I-Ozone inesibopho sokumunca ikakhulukazi imisebe yeLanga etholakala ubude obuphakathi kuka-280 no-320 nm.

Lapho imisebe ye-ultraviolet evela eLangeni ishaya i-ozone, i-molecule yehlela ku-athomu oxygen ne-oxygen ejwayelekile. Lapho umoya-mpilo ovamile nowe-athomu uhlangana futhi ku-stratosphere baphinde bahlangane bakhe i-ozone molecule. Lokhu kuphendula kuhlala ku-stratosphere ne-ozone ne-oxygen kuhlala ngasikhathi sinye.

Izici zamakhemikhali ze-ozone

i-surface ozone inobuthi ezitshalweni nasezilwaneni

I-ozone iyigesi engatholakala ezivunguvungwini zikagesi naseduze kwamandla kagesi aphezulu noma imishini ekhanyayo. Isibonelo, kuma-mixers, lapho izinhlansi zikhiqizwa ngokuxhumana kwamabhulashi, i-ozone iyakhiqizwa. Kungabonakala kalula ngephunga.

Le gesi ingafingqana futhi ibonakale njengoketshezi oluhlaza olungazinzile kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, uma iqhwa izokwethula umbala omnyama-nsomi. Kulezi zifundazwe ezimbili kuyinto eqhumayo kakhulu enikezwe amandla ayo amakhulu e-oxidizing.

Lapho i-ozone ibola ibe yi-chlorine, iyakwazi ukufaka oketshezi eningi futhi, yize ukugxila kwayo kuncane kakhulu emhlabeni (cishe ama-20 ppb), iyakwazi ukufaka insimbi insimbi.

Inzima futhi isebenza kakhulu kune-oxygen. Ibuye ibe ne-oxidizing ethe xaxa, yingakho isetshenziswa njengesibulala-magciwane kanye ne-germicide, ngenxa ye-oxidation yamagciwane eyenzayo. Isetshenziselwe ukuhlanza amanzi, ukubhubhisa izinto eziphilayo, noma umoya ezibhedlela, imikhumbi-ngwenya, njll.

Ikhiqizwa kanjani i-ozone ku-stratosphere?

ungqimba lwe-ozone luyawohloka ngama-CFC

I-ozone ikhiqizwa ikakhulu lapho ama-molecule e-oxygen engaphansi kwamandla amaningi. Lapho lokhu kwenzeka, la ma-molecule aba yi-atomic oxygen free radicals. Le gesi ayizinzile ngokwedlulele, ngakho-ke lapho ihlangana nenye i-molecule ye-oxygen ejwayelekile, iyabophezeleka yakhe i-ozone. Lokhu kusabela kwenzeka njalo ngemizuzwana emibili noma kunjalo.

Kulokhu, umthombo wamandla obeka phansi i-oxygen ejwayelekile ngu imisebe yelanga ephuma elangeni. Imisebe ye-Ultraviolet yiyo ehlukanisa i-oxygen yamangqamuzana ne-oxygen ye-athomu. Lapho ama-molecule e-athomu namangqamuzana e-oksijeni ehlangana futhi enza i-ozone, ibhujiswa ngokulandelana yisenzo semisebe ye-ultraviolet uqobo.

Ungqimba lwe-ozone luqhubeka ngokuqhubekayo ukudala nokucekela phansi ama-molecule e-ozone, i-oxygen yamangqamuzana ne-oxygen ye-athomu. Ngale ndlela, kwenziwa ukulingana okunamandla lapho i-ozone ichithwa futhi yakhiwa khona. Le yindlela i-ozone esebenza ngayo njengesihlungi esingavumeli imisebe eyingozi ukuthi idlule ebusweni bomhlaba.

Ungqimba lwe-ozone

ungqimba lwe-ozone lusemsebenzini oqhubekayo

Igama "ungqimba lwe-ozone" uqobo aluqondwa kahle. Lokho kungukuthi, umqondo ukuthi ekuphakameni okuthile ku-stratosphere kunokuhlushwa okuphezulu kwe-ozone okusibekela futhi kuvikele uMhlaba. Okungaphezulu noma okuncane kumelwa sengathi isibhakabhaka simbozwe ungqimba lwamafu.

Noma kunjalo, akunjalo. Iqiniso ukuthi i-ozone ayigxilile emgqeni, futhi ayitholakali ebangeni elithile, kepha igesi eyindlala ehlanjululwa kakhulu emoyeni nokuthi, ngaphezu kwalokho, ivela emhlabathini iye ngale kwe-stratosphere . Lokho esikubiza ngokuthi "ungqimba lwe-ozone" indawo ye-stratosphere lapho ukuhlushwa kwama-molecule e-ozone kuphakeme kakhulu (izinhlayiya ezimbalwa ngesigidi) futhi ziphakeme kakhulu kunezinye izingxube ze-ozone ebusweni. Kepha ukuminyana kwe-ozone kuqhathaniswa nokwamanye amagesi asemkhathini njenge-nitrogen, kuyinto encane.

Uma ungqimba lwe-ozone lunyamalala, imisebe yelanga ye-ultraviolet ibingashaya umhlaba ngqo ngaphandle kohlobo oluthile lokuhlunga futhi ibangele ukuthi umhlaba unqandwe, ukuqeda yonke impilo yasemhlabeni. 

Ukuhlushwa kwegesi ye-ozone kusendlalelo lwe-ozone cishe izingxenye eziyishumi kwisigidi ngasinye. Ukuhlungwa kwe-ozone e-stratospheric kuyehluka ngokuphakama, kepha akukaze kube ngaphezu kwenkulungwane eyikhulu yomkhathi lapho kutholakala khona. I-ozone igesi eyindlala kangangoba, uma ngomzuzwana nje besingayihlukanisa nomoya wonke bese siyidonsela phansi, ibingaqina ngo-3mm kuphela.

Ukubhujiswa kongqimba lwe-ozone

umgodi we-ozone waqala ukubonakala ngo-1970

Ungqimba lwe-ozone lwaqala ukuwohloka emuva ngama-70s, lapho kubonakala isenzo esilimazayo samagesi e-nitrogen oxide kuwo. Lawa magesi axoshwa yizindiza ezihamba phambili.

I-nitrous oxide iphendula nge-ozone okuholela ku-nitric oxide ne-oxygen ejwayelekile. Yize lokhu kwenzeka, isenzo esilingweni se-ozone sincane. Amagesi alimaza ngempela ungqimba lwe-ozone angama-CFC (ama-chlorofluorocarbon). Lawa magesi angumphumela wokusetshenziswa kwamakhemikhali okwenziwa.

Isikhathi sokuqala lapho ukuncipha kongqimba lwe-ozone kwaziwa ngo-1977 e-Antarctica. Ngo-1985 kwakungenzeka ukuthi kukalwe ukuthi imisebe eyingozi ye-ultraviolet evela eLangeni yayinyuke izikhathi eziyishumi nokuthi ungqimba lwe-ozone ngaphezu kwe-Antarctica yehle ngo-40%. Ukusuka lapho kulapho yaqala khona ukukhuluma ngomgodi we-ozone.

Ukuncipha koqweqwe lwe-ozone bekuyindida ende. Izincazelo ezihlobene nemijikelezo yelanga noma izici ezinamandla zomkhathi zibonakala zingenasisekelo futhi namhlanje kubonakala kufakazelwa ukuthi kungenxa yokwanda kokukhishwa kwe-freon (Chlorofluorocarbon noma i-CFC), igesi elisetshenziswa embonini ye-aerosol, amapulasitiki kanye neziqandisi kanye ne-air conditioning circuits.

Ama-CFC amagesi azinzile asemkhathini, ngoba awanabo ubuthi futhi awakwazi ukutsha. Lokhu kubanikeza impilo ende, kukuvumela ukuthi uchithe ama-molecule e-ozone asendleleni yakho isikhathi eside.

Uma i-Ozone Layer ibingacekelwa phansi, ukwanda kwemisebe ye-UV kungadala uchungechunge oluyinhlekelele lokuphendula kwezinto eziphilayo njenge ukwanda kokuvama kwezifo ezithathelwanayo nomdlavuza wesikhumba.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukukhiqizwa kwamagesi abamba ukushisa (akhishwa ebusweni bomhlaba ngesenzo ikakhulu somuntu) akhiqiza lokho okubizwa ngokuthi "Umphumela Wokushisa Okushisa", kuzoholela ekufudumaleni kwembulunga yonke ngezinguquko zesifunda ekushiseni, okuzoholela ekukhuphukeni kolwandle njengomphumela, phakathi kokunye, ukuncibilika kancane kancane kwenqwaba yeqhwa elisendaweni ebandayo.

Lokhu kufana nenhlanzi eluma umsila wayo. Lapho inani lemisebe yelanga likhula kakhulu emhlabeni, umthelela omkhulu emazingeni okushisa. Uma sengeza imiphumela yokufudumala kwembulunga okubangelwe ukwanda komthelela wokushisa komhlaba kanye nemiphumela ephakeme yemisebe ye-UV evela eLangeni kumasayizi e-ice njenge-Antarctica, siyabona ukuthi uMhlaba ucwilile esimweni ukushisa okushiswa yikho konke.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, ungqimba lwe-ozone lubaluleke kakhulu empilweni emhlabeni, kubantu, kanye nasezimileni nasezilwaneni. Ukugcina ungqimba lwe-ozone lusesimweni esihle kuyinto eza kuqala futhi kulokhu, ohulumeni kufanele baqhubeke nokusebenza ekuvimbeleni ukukhishwa kwamagesi aqeda i-ozone.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-2, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   U-Leslie payanca kusho

    Inothi elihle kakhulu! Ngiyabonga .
    Ukwazi kangcono ukunakekela iplanethi yethu

  2.   UNESTOR DIAZ kusho

    incazelo enhle kakhulu ngongqimba lwe-ozone, buza ukuthi ungqimba lwe-ozone luqine kangakanani