Umjikelezo we-nitrogen

umjikelezo we-nitrogen

El umjikelezo we-nitrogen kungumjikelezo oyisisekelo we-biogeochemical wokusebenza kahle kwempilo. Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zemijikelezo ye-biogeochemical okuyilezo eziqinisekisa izimo ezikahle zemvelo ekwakhiweni kwempilo. Zonke izinto eziphilayo zincike kumjikelezo we-nitrogen ekukhuleni nasekuthuthukisweni kwawo.

Ngalesi sizathu, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici, imvelaphi nokubaluleka komjikelezo we-nitrogen.

Uyini umjikelezo we-nitrogen

umjikelezo we-nitrogen olwandle

Umjikelezo we-nitrogen awunalutho ngaphandle kokungena iqoqo lezinqubo zamakhemikhali neziphilayo ezivumela ukuhlinzeka ngezinto eziphilayo nge-nitrogen ukuze zikhule. Futhi ukuthi le nto ibalulekile ukuze umuntu ophilayo akwazi ukukhula ngokuphelele. Kukhona amadamu ahlukene, izigaba kulo mjikelezo ezibaluleke kakhulu empilweni yomuntu. Njengomjikelezo wekhabhoni neminye imijikelezo yemvelo, kunemithombo yokukhishwa kwale nto. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuze umjikelezo uvale ngokuphelele, kufanele kube khona imithombo yokumunca i-nitrogen. Ngale ndlela, kutholakala ukuthi ibhalansi ye-nitrogen yomhlaba kumele izinze ukuze konke kusebenze kahle.

Kodwa-ke, abantu badala imithelela ehlukahlukene yezemvelo emhlabeni wonke futhi lo mjikelezo uthinteka kakhulu. Phakathi kwezici esinazo zalo mjikelezo we-biogeochemical sinomsuka wawo. Futhi ukuthi i-nitrogen ivela ekudalweni kwe-nuclei entsha ye-athomu, izakhi zamakhemikhali ezingekho metallic esimweni segesi. Siyazi ukuthi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamakhemikhali ezinto eziphilayo nezingajwayelekile ziveza umjikelezo wonke. Ukusebenza kwazo zonke izinto kuqala kusukela ekulahlekelweni kwama-electron. Ngaleso sikhathi, ngaphandle kwama-electron, ama-amino acid, i-DNA namaprotheni angenziwa. Ngenxa yakho konke lokhu ukwakheka, umjikelezo we-nitrogen unesibopho sokudlala indima ebalulekile ekukhuleni kwezitshalo kanye nezicubu zezinto eziphilayo.

Yize luhlobo lwensizakalo yemvelo engaphatheki, lubalulekile ekuthuthukiseni impilo. Ngakho-ke, umuntu kufanele afunde ukugcina lo mjikelezo njengoba ubalulekile.

Amachibi e-nitrogen esikalini somhlaba jikelele

ngebhayisikili

Sizohlaziya ukuthi yimaphi amadamu amakhulu lapho kutholakala i-nitrogen emhlabeni wonke. Ingxenye yokuqala umkhathi. Siyazi ukuthi umkhathi wethu unobukhona obuphakeme be-l nitrogen, lokhu kungama-78% awo wonke amagesi. Ingxenye enkulu yalolu ungqimba lomoya. Yize i-nitrogen yasemkhathini ingenile futhi ingenzi noma yiluphi uhlobo lokuphendula, idlala indima yayo kukho konke lokhu.

Enye indawo lapho kunechibi le-nitrogen isemadwaleni asezintabeni. I-21% nitrogen itholakala ixutshwe nezinto eziphilayo futhi isatshalaliswa olwandle. Masingakhohlwa ukuthi impilo yasolwandle nayo idinga i-nitrogen ukuze ikwazi ukukhula kahle. I-nitrogen empilweni yasolwandle ifakwe ngendlela ehlukile. Kunezinto eziningi eziphilayo ezidinga i-nitrogen osukwini lwazo nosuku ukuze zikwazi ukufeza imisebenzi ebalulekile.

Ingxenye yokugcina yedamu lalesi sakhi ingama-microorganisms. Amagciwane amancane abamba iqhaza kumjikelezo we-nitrogen yiwo aziwa ngawo igama lama-fixatives, ama-nitrifiers nama-denitrifiers. Ukulungiswa yilezo zinto ezihlose ukulungisa i-nitrogen emzimbeni wakho noma kwezinye izinto eziphilayo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi sinama-nitrifiers. Imayelana nalezo zidalwa eziphilayo eziphakelwa yi-nitrogen njengengxenye yezinto eziphilayo. Ama-denitrifiers yilawo asusa i-nitrogen ngenxa yokuhlangana kwamakhemikhali.

Izigaba zomjikelezo we-nitrogen

i-nitrogen kwezolimo

Sizobona ukuthi iziphi izigaba eziyinhloko lo mjikelezo odlula ngazo njengoba ushintsha ngokuqhubekayo. Sithole izigaba ezahlukahlukene lapho i-nitrogen ibikhona njengoba igesi ithatha ukuhlobana okukodwa noma okunye. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izigaba eziyinhloko:

  • Ukulungiswa: Kuyisigaba lapho i-nitrogen yasemkhathini itholwa yizo zonke izidalwa eziphilayo ezingayisebenzisa ngendlela ye-abiotic. Kungaleyo ngxenye yesistimu yemvelo abangazi lutho ngayo. Isibonelo, amandla kagesi avela kumbani nasemisebeni yelanga yizinto ze-abiotic. Impilo ye-Biotic yingxenye ekwaziyo ukuthola i-nitrogen ezintweni ezincane eziphilayo ezikhona emhlabathini.
  • Ukwaziswa: ama-nitrate ame lapha. Kulesi sigaba somjikelezo, izitshalo zidlala indima ebalulekile. Ku-cytoplasm yamaseli ezitshalo sinama-nitrate ancishiselwa kuma-nitrites. Ku-nitrite kusebenza ukufakwa esitshalweni ngezimpande. Siyazi ukuthi izitshalo zisebenzisa i-nitrogen njengokudla ukuze zikhule futhi zizalane.
  • Ukuguqulwa kwe-Amoni: kuyisigaba somjikelezo we-nitrogen lapho siguqulwa khona sibe yi-ammonium ion ngenxa yesenzo sezinto ezincane eziphilayo ze-aerobic. Lokhu kusho ukuthi yizilwanyana ezincane ezisebenza lapho kukhona umoya-mpilo.
  • I-Nitrification: Kuyingxenye yenqubo equkethe i-oxidation yebhayoloji ye-ammonia ngamagciwane amancane e-aerobic. Ngenxa yale nitrification, i-ammonia nitrogen ibuyela emhlabathini ukuze iphinde isetshenziswe yizitshalo.
  • Ukungasebenzi: kuyinqubo ephikisana ne-nitrification.
  • Ukuhlanjululwa: inqubo ehlukile yokulungiswa. Lapha sinenqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi ukuphefumula kwe-anaerobic. Okusho ukuthi, lolu hlobo lwenqubo lwenzeka lapho kungekho umoya-mpilo. Le nqubo ebhekele ukubuyisela i-nitrogen emoyeni kanye ne-nitrate encibilika emanzini. Kuyisigaba sokugcina somjikelezo lapho yonke into ibuyela kumsuka wayo.

Ukubaluleka

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, lo mjikelezo ubaluleke kakhulu ezingeni lezemvelo. I-nitrogen ibalulekile ezintweni eziphilayo uma nje ingasetshenziswa yizo. Kuyinto ebalulekile ekukhiqizeni i-DNA, ama-amino acid, amaprotheni nama-nucleic acid. Zibuye zibe yinto esemqoka yentuthuko kanye nokukhiqiza kwezolimo. Omanyolo abaningi abasetshenziswa kwezolimo ukwenza izitshalo zikhule ngokushesha futhi ngezimpawu ezingcono zine-oxygen eningi.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomjikelezo we-nitrogen nezici zawo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.