Umugqa weKármán

Ulayini kaKarman

Omunye wemibuzo ososayensi nabantu abajwayelekile abahlale bezibuza wona ukuthi ngabe kukhona umngcele wesikele phakathi komkhathi nomkhathi ongaphandle. Kuyaziwa ukuthi umkhathi uba mncane futhi unciphe njengoba ufinyelela ezindaweni eziphakeme kakhulu ukusuka ebusweni bomhlaba uze unyamalale. Kodwa-ke, kunomkhawulo womkhathi obaluleke kakhulu ezinhlosweni zezindiza. Lo mkhawulo womkhathi waziwa njenge Umugqa weKármán.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngomugqa waseKármán nokubaluleka kwawo.

Izici eziyinhloko

ulayini nezindiza zikaKarman

Kuyaziwa ukuthi umkhathi awupheli ngokungazelelwe endaweni ethile futhi echaziwe. Kutholakale ukuthi umkhathi uba mncane futhi ube mncane njengoba ukuphakama kukhuphuka. Kwabanye ososayensi, umkhathi womhlaba uphelela endaweni lapho izingqimba zomhlaba zingaphandle. Okungukuthi, lezi zingqimba ezingaphandle zomkhathi Ziyaziwa ngegama le-thermosphere ne-exosphere. Ukube lo mbono ubuyiqiniso, umkhathi womhlaba ubuzofinyelela cishe amakhilomitha ayi-10.000 XNUMX ngaphezu kogu lolwandle.

Ubuningi bomoya buyancipha njengoba sikhuphula ukuphakama. Ngakho-ke, kulesi simo sengqondo ubukhulu bomoya buphansi kakhulu kangangokuthi isikhala sangaphandle sesingacatshangelwa. Enye incazelo ebanga kakhulu yomngcele womkhathi ibheka ukuthi iphelela lapho ukuminyana komkhathi kuba phansi kakhulu. Lokhu kwaziwa kusukela ngejubane indiza engalithola ukufeza ukuphakama kwe-aerodynamic ngamaphiko kanye nophephela kufanele kufaniswe nejubane le-orbital lalobude obufanayo. Ngalezi zibalo ukuphakama kungaziwa ngalezi zindlela zamaphiko futhi akusavumelekile ukugcina umkhumbi. Ngakho-ke, Yilapho umkhathi ubuzophela khona bese kuqala isikhala sangaphandle.

Ebhekene nalokhu kukhathazeka, ulayini waseKármán uvelile ukuthola ukuthi umkhawulo phakathi komkhathi nomkhathi ongaphandle.

Umugqa weKármán

ukuphela komkhathi

Ulayini weKármán usungulwa njengencazelo engenakuphikiswa ngokususelwa ekucabangeni kohlobo lwezindiza. Okungukuthi, kungashiwo ukuthi kungumkhawulo okhona phakathi komkhathi nomkhathi ongaphandle wezinhloso zezindiza nezomkhathi. Yize kunjalo ngokwemvelo Awukho umkhawulo onjalo kepha uyanyamalala njengoba uthuthukela ekuphakameni, kunezintshisekelo ezahlukahlukene zezindiza nezomkhathi ukusungula ulayini waseKármán.

Incazelo yomugqa waseKármán yamukelwe yi-International Aeronautical Federation. Lo mfelandawonye uphethe ukusungula wonke amazinga wamazwe omhlaba nokuwaqaphela amarekhodi ku-aeronautics ne-astronautics. Ukuphakama komugqa weKármán kungokwe-oda lamakhilomitha ayi-100, kepha amakhilomitha ayi-122 asetshenziselwa ukuba nesethenjwa. Isethenjwa esivela kulayini wokungena kabusha mkhathi.

Umugqa weKármán nezendlalelo zomkhathi

umkhawulo womkhathi

Ukuze ubeke kumongo ukubaluleka komugqa waseKármán lapho, yazi ukuma kwawo maqondana nezinye izingqimba zomkhathi. Sichaze ukuthi ukuphakama kwayo bekucatshangelwa ukuthi kube ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi kwamakhilomitha ayi-100 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle. Lokhu kuphakama kwabekwa nguTheodore von Kármán, yingakho igama layo. Kwasungulwa ngokubala ubude lapho ubungako bomoya buba buphansi kakhulu khona ukuthi ijubane lendiza ukufeza ukuphakama komkhathi usebenzisa amaphiko kanye nophephela kufanele kulinganiswe nejubane le-orbital lalokhu kuphakama okufanayo.

Lokhu kusho ukuthi lapho ufinyelela kulokhu kuphakama lapho umugqa weKármán usungulwa khona, izimpiko bezingeke zisasebenza ukugcina umkhumbi ngoba ukuminyana komoya kuncane kakhulu. Indiza yaziwa ngokuzixhasa kuphela uma ihamba njalo emoyeni. Kungenxa yalokhu ukuthi amaphiko akhiqiza ukuphakama kunikezwe ijubane lokuhamba emoyeni. Uma indiza ibimile emoyeni, ibingakwazi ukubamba ngoba ukuminyana akwanele.

Uma umoya uzaca, indiza kufanele ihambe ngejubane elikhulu ukuze ikhiqize ilifti eyanele ukugwema ukuwa. Lokhu kwenza kuthakazelise ukwazi ukuphakama kokuphakama kwephiko lendiza nge-engeli ethile yokuhlasela. Into ihlala i-orbit inqobo nje uma ingxenye ye-centrifugal yokusheshisa kwayo yenele ukukwazi ukukhokhela amandla adonsela phansi. Siyazi ukuthi amandla adonsela phansi aqhubekela phambili ebusweni bomhlaba, ngakho-ke into idinga isivinini sokuskrola esiphakeme kakhulu. Uma lesi sivinini sincipha, ingxenye ye-centrifugal nayo izokwehla futhi amandla adonsela phansi azodala ukuthi ukuphakama kwayo kwehle ize iwele.

Ulwazi lomzimba

Ijubane elidingekayo lokulingana libizwa nge-orbital velocity futhi liyahluka ngobude be-orbit. Ukuze i-shuttle space ku-Earth orbit idinga isivinini se-orbital esingamakhilomitha angama-27.000 ngehora. Endabeni yebhanoyi elizama ukundizela phezulu, umoya uba mncane kakhulu futhi lokhu kuphoqa indiza ukuthi inyuse ijubane layo lokudala ukuphakama emoyeni.

Kusuka kuye kuyaziwa ukuthi ulayini waseKármán ungumqondo ophathelene kakhulu nokuphakama. Njengoba intshisekelo yayo iyi-aerodynamics, ayinakho ukuqina kwesayensi okuningi. Umoya umane ushaye kancane bese ugcina usunokumelana okuphansi kakhulu futhi ufinyelela esikhaleni esingaphandle.

Ulayini waseKármán usetshenziswa njengomqondo ohlobene nokuphakama futhi kukwenza kufaneleke ukukhulisa ijubane lokuhamba nge ukuthola i-aerodynamic lift noma isinxephezelo ngokudonsa kwamandla adonsela phansi. Lapho sizozijwayeza, siyabona ukuthi konke lokhu kucatshangelwa kuyehluka njengoba ubukhulu be-orbit bukhuphuka. Siyazi ukuthi lapho ubukhulu be-orbit bukhulu kakhulu sinokudonsa okuncane kwamandla adonsela phansi. Siyakhumbula ukuthi amandla adonsela phansi angamandla amandla adonsela phansi aletha entweni eqonde ebusweni bomhlaba. Kodwa-ke, kuyaziwa futhi ukuthi kukhona ukusheshisa okuphezulu kwe-centrifugal kwejubane elifanayo lomugqa.

Kusuka kubo kutholakala ukuthi ulayini waseKármán awunaki lo mphumela ngenxa yejubane le-orbital ukuze kwanele ukwazi ukugcina noma yisiphi isimo sengqondo ngaphandle kobuningi bomkhathi.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomugqa weKármán nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.