ukushabalala okukhulu

izibankwakazi

Iplanethi yethu ineminyaka engaphezu kwezigidi ezingu-4.500 zokuziphendukela kwemvelo. Kuso sonke lesi sikhathi kube nezinguquko ezehlukene ezidale ukuthi izinhlobo eziningi zezilwane zife. Lezi zikhathi ze ukushabalala okukhulu aziyona into entsha emhlabeni. Lezi zakhi zafinyelela umvuthwandaba cishe kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezilwane ezikhona ngaleso sikhathi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke okudingeka ukwazi mayelana nokuqothulwa kwenqwaba, izici zakho nokubaluleka okuye kwaba nakho kumlando weplanethi.

Kuyini ukushabalala kwenqwaba

ukushabalala kwenqwaba yomhlaba

Okokuqala, kufanele sazi kuqala ukuthi uhlobo oluthile luyashabalala lapho zingekho izibonelo ezisele noma kuphi emhlabeni ezingazalana futhi zishiye inzalo. Manje, ukushabalala okukhulu kungenye yezinhlobo ezintathu zokuqothulwa ezikhona. Ake sibone lapha ukuthi babizwa ngani nokuthi uyini umehluko wabo:

  • Ukushabalala kwangemuva: zenzeka ngokungahleliwe kuwo wonke ama-biomes futhi kancane kancane zinyamalale.
  • Ukuqothulwa Okuningi: kuphumela ekwehleni okukhulu kwenani lezinhlobo zezilwane ezihlala endaweni futhi ezenzeka phakathi nenkathi ethile yesikhathi.
  • ukushabalala kwenqwaba yenhlekelele: zenzeka ngokuphazima kweso emhlabeni wonke, futhi ngenxa yalokho, ukuhlukahluka kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo kuncipha kakhulu.

Izimbangela zokushabalala kwenqwaba

ukushabalala okukhulu

Ngemva kokufunda isigaba esandulele, ungase uzibuze ukuthi kungani ukuqothulwa kwabantu abaningi kwenzeka noma yini ebangela ukushabalala okukhulu kwezinhlobo zezilwane. Kunezizathu eziningi zokuthi kungani izilwane zinyamalala, kodwa nazi ezinye zazo.

izizathu zebhayoloji

Yilapho abaqala khona ukudlala izici zezinhlobo zezilwane kanye nokutholakala okukhona nokuncintisana phakathi kwazo. Ngale ndlela, izinhlobo ezithile zezilwane, ikakhulukazi izinhlobo ezihlaselayo endaweni yazo, zingasusa ezinye futhi ziziqhubekisele ekuqothulweni. Ngokuvamile ukunyamalala kwesizinda kwenzeka ngenxa yalezi zinhlobo zezizathu.

izizathu zemvelo

Izizathu zemvelo zihlanganisa: izinguquko ezingeni lokushisa, izinguquko ezingeni lolwandle, izinguquko umjikelezo biogeochemical, ukunyakaza plate, plate tectonics, njll. Kulokhu, uma uhlobo lwezilwane lungakwazi ukuzivumelanisa nezimo ezintsha zokuphila, luzoshabalala. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo nakho kuyingxenye yezimbangela zemvelo ezivame ukuholela ekuqothulweni okukhulu.

izimbangela zangaphandle

Asibhekiseli kuma-Martians noma ama-UFO, kodwa kumthelela wama-asteroid nama-meteorite ebusweni boMhlaba. Kulesi simo, ukushabalala kwenzeka ngesikhathi nangemva komthelela, ngoba ngemuva komthelela kubangele izinguquko ekubunjweni komkhathi, phakathi kweminye imiphumela. Ngenxa yalezi zinhlobo zezizathu, ukuqothulwa kwenqwaba yenhlekelele kwenzeka, njengoba nje ukushabalala kwama-dinosaurs kukholakala ukuthi kwenzeka.

izimbangela ezenziwe ngabantu

Yilezo zimbangela ezibangelwa ngokuphelele ukuziphatha komuntu. Ngokwesibonelo, ezolimo, izimayini, ukumba uwoyela kanye namahlathi, ukungcoliswa kwemvelo, ukwethulwa kwezinhlobo ezingavamile, ukuzingela nokushushumbiswa kwezilwane zasendle kanye nokufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngezinye zezinkinga zemvelo ezilethwa abantu esimisweni semvelo ngokungangabazeki eziyoholela ekuqothulweni kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo.

Ukushabalala okukhulu emlandweni womhlaba

meteorite

Ungacabanga ukuthi zingaki ukushabalala okukhulu okwenzeka emlandweni womhlaba? Yiqiniso, kwaba nokuqothulwa kwenqwaba emihlanu. Ngisho nososayensi abaningi bathi sibhekene nokushabalala okukhulu kwesithupha. Kulesi sigaba, sizokutshela ukuthi yisiphi isikhathi sokwakheka komhlaba, isikhathi esingakanani, nokuthi kungani ukushabalala kwenqwaba kwenzeka.

Ukuqothulwa kwe-Ordovician-Silurian

Ukushabalala kokuqala kwenqwaba kwenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-444 edlule. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi yathatha iminyaka ephakathi kuka-500.000 1 no-60 million, kangangokuthi ngaphezu kuka-XNUMX% wezilwane zaphela. Kunemibono eminingana yokuthi yini eyabangela lokhu kushabalala, eqine kakhulu ithi ukuqhuma kwe-supernova kwabangela izinguquko ezingeni lolwandle nongqimba lwe-ozone.

Ukuqothulwa kwe-Devonian-Carboniferous

Kwenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-360 edlule futhi ngaphezu kwama-70% wezinhlobo zezilwane zashabalala. Isehlakalo sokushabalala, esathatha iminyaka eyizigidi ezi-3, kucatshangwa ukuthi saqala ngokuqhuma kwezimpaphe ze-mantle, izigxobo ezijulile ngaphansi koqweqwe loMhlaba olusuka ezindaweni ezishisayo kanye namabhande entaba-mlilo.

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian-Triassic

Lesi sigameko senzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-250 edlule futhi sathatha iminyaka eyisigidi. bhalansile, Amaphesenti angama-95 ezinhlobo zasolwandle kanye nama-70% ezinhlobo zasemhlabeni ashabalala. Imbangela okuyiyonayona ayikaziwa, kodwa kulinganiselwa ukuthi ibangelwa ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo, amagesi aphuma enkabeni yoMhlaba, kanye nomthelela we-asteroid.

Ukuqothulwa kwe-Triassic-Jurassic

Eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-260 edlule, lesi sigameko sokushabalala kwenqwaba yeminyaka eyisigidi saqothula ama-70% ezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Imibono echaza ukuthi kungani ihlanganisa ukuhlukana kwePangea nokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo okulandelanayo.

I-Cretaceous - Ukuqothulwa kwemfundo ephakeme

Kwenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingu-66 edlule futhi mhlawumbe isenzakalo esidume kakhulu sokuqothulwa kwabantu abaningi, njengoba izinhlobo zama-dinosaurs ezazihlala emhlabeni zashabalala. Kunemibono eminingi yokuchaza ukuthi kungani, ikakhulukazi esekelwe emisebenzini yentaba-mlilo ephezulu kanye nomthelela wama-asteroid amakhulu. Isici salo mcimbi ukuthi awubulalanga ama-dinosaurs kuphela, kodwa ngaphezu kuka-70% wezinhlobo zezilwane, futhi yahlala izinsuku ezilinganiselwa ku-30 ​​kuphela.

Ukuqothulwa kwenqwaba ye-Holocene noma ukushabalala kwenqwaba yesithupha

ukushabalala okukhulu kwezilwane

Lo mcimbi udale izingxabano eziningi, hhayi nje ngoba uzokwenzeka ngokushesha, kodwa ngoba izizathu zaso zivele zakhiwe. Iqiniso ukuthi izinga lokuqothulwa kwezinhlobo zezilwane liyanda kusukela ekuthuthukisweni komsebenzi womuntu, isibonelo, izilwane ezincelisayo ziya zishabalala ngenani eliphindwe izikhathi ezingama-280 kunokuvamile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kulinganiselwa ukuthi izinhlobo eziye zashabalala eminyakeni engamakhulu amabili edlule (iminyaka engu-200) kufanele zishabalale phakathi neminyaka engu-28.000. Uma kubhekwa lokhu, kucace nakakhulu ukuthi sibhekene nokushabalala kwenqwaba yabantu.

Ukuze siqedele ukuqonda kwethu lokhu kushabalala okukhulu emlandweni womhlaba, sinikeze umugqa wesikhathi wokushabalala okuningi ngezansi.

Ngethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokushabalala kwenqwaba kanye nemiphumela yako.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   i-francisco kusho

    Iphindaphinda futhi ayilahlekelwa yi-transcendence ngokuqhubekayo, ihlale ishiya umphefumulo wethu umakiwe futhi ujabule, hlala ukhumbula ukuqhubeka kwalezi zindaba futhi ngiyabonga bakwethu