Ukukhanyisa ukukhanya

ukuphazamiseka

Umhlaba we-physics nezithombe uthintwa yisimo sokukhanya esaziwa njenge ukukhanya kokukhanya. Kunamalensi amaningi ekhamera obuchwepheshe aklanyelwe ukunikeza ubukhali obuhle kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, yize kungekhwalithi enhle kakhulu, abakwazi ukubalekela kulesi simo sokukhanya.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi yikuphi ukukhanya kokukhanya nokuthi yiziphi izici nokubaluleka kwako.

Kuyini ukukhanya kokukhanya

ukukhanya kwe-diffraction

Lapho amaza okukhanya edlula emingxenyeni emincane nezingqinamba eziseduze noma emaphethelweni acijile, lokho okubizwa ngokuthi ukukhanya kokukhanya kuyenziwa. Uma into i-opaque futhi ilele phakathi komthombo wephoyinti wokukhanya nesikrini, umngcele ophakathi izifunda ezinomthunzi nezigqanyisiwe esibukweni ngeke zichazwe. Kungabonakala njengengxenye yezindawo ezinemithunzi futhi ezikhanyisiwe zikhombisa inani elincane lokukhanya eliphambukiselwe ezifundeni ezinomthunzi.

Kungashiwo ukuthi ukusabalala kokukhanya kuyinto eyenzekayo lapho amagagasi akha ukukhanya edlula emgodini omncane. Lapho lokhu kwenzeka, amagagasi okukhanya akha kancane futhi angabe esaba nogongolo. Noma nini lapho sikhuluma ngephuzu lokukhanya kufanele sazi ukuthi uyini umsebe wokukhanya. Lesi sigxobo sokukhanya simane nje "singumfudlana" lapho ukukhanya kudlula khona emoyeni. Kulokhu, lapho lidlula emgodini, amaza okukhanya avuleka njengamalambu emoto phakathi nobusuku ngoba umgodi yiwo osebenza njengomkhiphi omusha wokukhanya.

Ukwehlukaniswa kokukhanya kusetshenziswa kumakhamera ukuphoqa ukukhanya ngembobo encane kakhulu. Lokhu kusetshenziselwa ukukhetha inani lokukhanya esizolisebenzisa ukuthatha isithombe.

Izici eziyinhloko

ukukhanya kokukhanya

Ukusabalalisa ukukhanya kubangela ukuthi kungagxili endaweni efanele. Le nto ibangela ukuthi ihlakazeke, yakhe lokho okwaziwa ngokuthi Idiski enomoya. Le disk ayilutho ngaphandle kokumelwa kokuguqulwa kwesibani sokukhanya namagagasi akhonjiswa endizeni. Endabeni yokuthwebula izithombe, indiza iyisensa yekhamera.

I-albhamu ye-Airy yiyo efuna izithombe ukusungula ibhalansi. Uzama ukuthatha isithombe ngokujula kwenkambu ukuze yonke into ivele kahle ekugxileni. Ngenxa yesimo sokukhanyiswa kokukhanya, uvalo lwekhamera lungavalwa ukugxila kahle ezintweni ezithombeni. Kufika iphuzu lapho ukuvala i-diaphragm kulapho kukhona ukulahleka okujwayelekile kobukhali. Ngakho-ke, kubalulekile ukwazi ukuthi isimo sokwenyuka kokukhanya sisebenza kanjani uma sifuna ukwengeza izithombe.

Lesi simo siyasetshenziswa nakwezentengiso ukukhiqiza ukubonwa okuheha iso lenyama. Igama elithi diffraction livela kwelesiLatin diffractus, okusho ukuthi liphukile. Kwenzeka ikakhulukazi ngoba indwayimane iyakwazi ukuzungeza isithiyo ekusakazeni kwayo, isuke ekuziphatheni kwemisebe ye-rectilinear. Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi imiphumela esemqoka yokusabalalisa ukukhanya ihlala incane.

Isimo sokuphazamiseka singabonakala ngeso lenyama ngokuba nomthombo okhanyayo obeka iminwe emibili ebangeni lamasentimitha ayishumi ukusuka esweni elilodwa, okwenza isikhala esincane kakhulu phakathi kweminwe. Kulapha lapho singabona khona uchungechunge lwemigqa emnyama neminye elula. Imigqa engabonakala ikakhulu idalwa yilokho okwaziwa ngokuthi ukuphazamiseka kokukhanya nokwakhayo. Lokhu kuphazamiseka kuzungeza iminwe ukudala lo mphumela.

Ukwehluka kwesimiso sokukhanya ne-Huygens

ukuphambuka komzimba

Isizathu salokho okwenzeka ekuphazanyisweni asicaci ngokuphelele. Usosayensi UChristian Huygens unikeze incazelo yalesi simo. Incazelo isuselwa kwimisebe ye-electromagnetic kanye namandla ayo lapho ukukhethwa kabusha kwamandla kazibuthe kushiya umthombo lapho kukhishwa khona futhi kunwebeka njengoba kuhamba. Ukunwetshwa kwalo kwenziwa ngomugqa oqondile sengathi bekumboza ubuso bokulinda obukhula njalo. Yonke indawo yokwandiswa kokukhanya iyanda ngokulingana nesikwele sebanga imisebe elihambayo.

Sicabanga ukuthi amandla kagesi angasakazeka avela emthonjeni wephuzu kumagagasi endiza. Kulokhu, asisebenzisi kuphela umthetho ophindayo wesikwele kumthombo wamandla kepha futhi kufanele sisebenzise kunoma iyiphi iphuzu ku-sling flat. Ngakho-ke, kungashiwo ukuthi amagagasi acatshangwa kanjalo zenziwa ngokuqhubekayo kusuka kuwo wonke amaphuzu endizeni futhi zisakazwa kuzo zonke izinhlangothi. Uma sinciphisa indawo lapho sikhipha khona isibani, indawo lapho umsebe wokukhanya uhamba ngayo izoncipha.

Lesi simiso seHuygens sashicilelwa eminyakeni engaphezu kwengama-300 eyedlule futhi kuhlongozwa indlela entsha yokwazi ukusakazwa kokukhanya njengoba sazi namuhla. Ngalesi sikhathi kwakucatshangelwa ukuthi ukukhanya kuhamba njengamagagasi kuhlobo lwento eyinkohliso ebizwa nge-ether futhi kucatshangwa ukuthi kugcwalisa indawo yonke. Inhlayiyana ngayinye ye-ether edlidlizayo yabonwa njengomsuka wamagagasi amasha. Amagagasi ayindilinga wokukhanya kokukhanya kokuqala avela emthonjeni wephoyinti futhi afihlwe kancane yisikrini esingenamkhawulo S.

Ukuhamba kwamagagasi okukhanya kuchazwa ngejubane kusigaxa esikhawulelwe ukuvulwa kwesikrini. Ukuvulwa kwesikrini kwaziwa njengendawo lapho ukukhanya kungaphuma khona. Lo mgomo usetshenziselwa ukwamukela imithetho ekhombisa ukukhishwa kwamagagasi endiza. Isimiso sikaHuygens sihambisana ne- i-geometry ebonakalayo futhi isebenza ngamaza amade amancane kakhulu. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, asikwazi ukuyisebenzisa ukuchaza zonke izenzakalo ezikhona zamagagasi okukhanya. Isibonelo, akusebenzi ukuchaza ukuphambuka kwamagagasi kusuka ekusakazeni kwemisebe yokukhanya lapho kudlula onqenqemeni lwento noma ngokuvuleka okuncane.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuphambuka kokukhanya.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.