Ama-Fullerenes

ukugcwalisa

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngesakhiwo samangqamuzana esisetshenziswa emhlabeni we-physics futhi esinokusebenza okuhle. Imayelana ne- ukugcwalisa. Futhi kungokwesithathu okuzinzile kwamangqamuzana ekhabhoni okwaziwa namuhla. Kungathatha umumo oyindilinga, okweqanda, ithubhu noma indandatho. Kwatholakala cishe ngengozi ngo-1985.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, ukutholakala nokusetshenziswa kwama-fullerenes.

Izici eziyinhloko

Ama-athomu angu-60 ekhabhoni kwi-molecule

AmaFullerenes atholwe ososayensi UHarold Kroto, uRobert Curl noRichard Smalley ngo-1985 e-US Bacishe bathola ngephutha kodwa bakwenza bakwazi ukuthola uMklomelo KaNobel eKhemistry ngo-1996. Ilungelo lobunikazi lafakwa ngo-1990 futhi kamuva lashicilelwa. Lezi yizakhiwo ezintsha ezizinzile kakhulu zekhabhoni. Eqinisweni, aziwa njengefomu lesithathu elizinzile kunazo zonke elaziwa ngamangqamuzana ekhabhoni ngemuva kwedayimane ne-graphite.

AmaFullerenes aguquke njengomphumela wokuhlolwa okwenziwe ngamamolekyuli ekhabhoni. Ilungelo lobunikazi elenziwe libhekisa kundlela yokuqala yokukhiqiza ubuningi bento iye ekutholeni into uqobo lwayo. Okwazanywa ukwenza ilungelo lobunikazi kwaba indlela yokwakha ngobuningi be-fullerene ukuze uzuze kuyo.

Ngalowo nyaka kwenziwa izivivinyo ezahlukahlukene. E-Rice University eHouston, uHarold Kroto wase-University of Southampton noRichard Smalley noRobert Curl waseRice, benze ucwaningo obelususelwa ekuzameni ukulingisa zonke izimo ezenzeka ngaphansi kwenkanyezi. Inhloso yalokhu kuhlola bekuwukwazi ukuthi amangqamuzana amakhulu akhiwa kanjani emkhathini. Ukwenza lokhu, badubula i-laser beam enamandla ebusweni bekhabhoni kukhona igesi ye-helium. Ekuqaleni yayihlolwa nge-hydrogen ne-nitrogen kodwa ekugcineni kuphela nge-nitrogen.

Lapho ugongolo lwe-laser seluxubene nobuso bekhabhoni kukhona i-helium, bekungenzeka ukuthi kubhekwe ukuthi i-carbon gaseous ihlangene ne-helium yakha kanjani amaqoqo. Igesi bekufanele ipholile isondele ku-zero ngokuphelele ukuze kwenziwe ukuhlaziywa kwe-spectral kwamaqoqo. Kuvele ukuthi kube yi-C60, okusho ukuthi kunama-athomu kaboni angama-60 ku-molecule eyodwa. Ngaleso sikhathi, ososayensi babengakaze babone okufana nakho. Futhi ukuthi iyisakhiwo esiyindilinga esikhumbuza igumbi lendawo le-geodesic likaBuckminster Fuller, yingakho igama elithi fullerenes.

Izicelo ze-fullerenes

isifundo sokuqala ukuthola ama-molecule

Njengoba bengakwazi ukwenza kabusha i-fullerene kukhompyutha, kudingeke ukuthi baphendukele ephepheni, esikalini, naku-tape. Ngale ndlela le nhlanganisela ibhabhadiswa njengama-fullerenes. Siyazi ukuthi ama-athomu ekhabhoni ziyahlangana futhi zingajoyina ndawonye zenze amaketanga ama-polymer amade. La ma-polymers asetshenziswa kakhulu kwimikhiqizo enjengezinkomishi zepulasitiki namabhodlela.

Esinye sezici ezixaka kakhulu zama-fullerenes ukuthi amanye awo anama-electron avela kuma-athomu akhishwe endaweni. Kungashiwo ukuthi ukusebenza kwala ma-electron kufana nokuthi bebengaboni ukuthi bayingxenye yesakhiwo sekhabhoni. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ngalolu hlobo lokuziphatha, kungenzeka ukwengeza amanye ama-athomu kalula ukwakha ama-superconductors noma ama-insulators. Ngemuva kokudala ilungelo lobunikazi, imibiko eminingi yabhalwa mayelana nama-fullerenes namathuba ekunikezayo.

Yize lezi zinhlanganisela zisezintsha impela, ososayensi beza nemibono ehlukile ebonakala ishintsha ukwakheka kwama-fullerenes ukwakha imicu emihle engenalutho ifa izikhathi 200 amandla eqine yensimbi. Kubukeka sengathi okunye ukusetshenziswa kwe-fullerene ukwakha udlawana omncane ukuqoqa amaqembu ama-molecule noma iziqukathi ezisebenza ukuthwala inani elincane lemithi noma izihlangu ezilwa nemisebe ye-radioactivity. Ingaguqulwa futhi ibe amakheji asebenza aqukethe ama-molecule athile avumela amanye amancane ukuthi adlule kuwo. Uma kunezelwa ezinye izinhlobo zama-athomu, izimfanelo ezithile zingatholakala, njengokulinganisa ukumelana nogesi.

Izici ze-fullerenes

izakhiwo ze-fullerene

Lezi yizakhiwo eziyize ezingenziwa emvelweni ngenxa yomlilo noma umbani. Uma sizihlaziya ngokwenyama, siyabona ukuthi zisesimweni sempuphu ephuzi. Uphawu lwayo lwesayensi yi-C60 futhi lubhekisa kwinani lama-athomu e-carbon akwi-molecule efanayo. Bayakwazi ukukhubazeka kepha babuyela esimweni sabo sokuqala lapho ingcindezi ababhekene nayo iqala ukwehla.

Ubuhle bama-fullerenes kanye nesidingo sokwenza amalungelo obunikazi ukuthi amelana kakhulu. Futhi ngukuthi ukuze kubhujiswe lezi zinhlayiya, kudingeka amazinga okushisa angaphezu kwama-degree ayi-1000. La mazinga okushisa awatholakali kalula nsuku zonke. Ngokuba nesimo esivaliwe nesilinganayo, kunikeza ukumelana okukhulu nengcindezi. Iyakwazi ukumelana nengcindezi yama-atmospheres angama-3000.

Phakathi kwezici zama-fullerenes sibona izindawo zawo zokuthambisa. Umthamo wokuthambisa unikezwa amandla abuthakathaka emolekyuli. Ama-molecule alo angabumbana akhe isiqiniseko esinezibopho ezizinzile nezingenamandla. Lesi siqina saziwa ngegama le-fullerite. Uma siveza i-fullerene iye emazingeni okushisa aphansi kakhulu siyabona ukuthi bayakwazi ukufaka isisekelo ngaphandle kokulahlekelwa yimikhakha. Ama-molecule ayo anokukhethwa kwamandla futhi enza izibopho ngama-athomu anikela ngama-electron.

Singaphetha ngokuthi ama-fullerenes yizinto ezintsha ezikhiqiza amasistimu ahlobene kakhulu futhi adala intshisekelo enkulu emphakathini wesayensi. Ikakhulukazi lokhu Inzalo isuselwa endaweni yokubuka yokusebenza ngamandla amakhulu. Ukuqhubeka njalo kulo lonke ucwaningo ngalezi zinto kungathuthukisa ubuchwepheshe bamanje bokukhiqiza izinto eziwusizo zekusasa.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, kwisayensi, kungatholwa izinto ezithakazelisa kakhulu njengomphumela wamaphutha noma ukulandela izinhloso ezahlukahlukene. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngama-fullerenes nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.