Ukudidizela komhlaba

Lapho ukuzamazama komhlaba kwenzeka, kufanele sazi ukuthi yimaphi amarekhodi awo okuzokwazi ukungena kuwo uma kungenzeka kube nokuzamazama komhlaba okuningi. Indawo lapho ukuhamba komhlaba kuqoshwe khona yi- uhlelo lokushiswa komhlaba. I-seismogram igrafu lapho amarekhodi alinganiswa yi-seismograph arekhodwa khona. Umsebenzi oyinhloko we-seismograph ukukala isivinini nohlobo lwamagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba okwenzeka ngesikhathi kuzamazama umhlaba.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ukuthi i-seismogram isebenza kanjani nokuthi yini ukubaluleka kwamarekhodi okuzamazama komhlaba.

Ukuzamazama komhlaba kwakheka kanjani

uhlelo lokushiswa komhlaba

Into yokuqala ukwazi ukuthi ukuzamazama komhlaba kwakheka kanjani. Njengoba sazi, uqweqwe lomhlaba luhlukaniswe ngamapuleti e-tectonic. Ukusebenzisana phakathi kwalezi zingqimba ze-tectonic yiyona imbangela enkulu yokuzamazama komhlaba. Noma kunjalo, akuyona kuphela. Noma iyiphi inqubo engathola inani elikhulu lamandla aqukethwe emadwaleni yanele ukukhiqiza ukuzamazama komhlaba. Ubungako bokuzamazama komhlaba okunjalo buzoya endaweni yokuhlushwa kwengcindezi nezinye izinto.

Ake sikhulume manje ngokuthi yiziphi izinto ezingadala ukuzamazama komhlaba:

  • Amapuleti eTectonic: Njengoba sishilo phambilini, kunokuzamazama komhlaba okuningi okusuka ekushintsheni kwamapuleti athile akhiwa uqweqwe lomhlaba. Lokhu kuzamazama komhlaba kudala izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagagasi aqoshwa yi-seismograph futhi afakwa ku-seismogram. Imvamisa lokhu kuzamazama komhlaba kuthinta izindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba futhi yikhona okudala ukuthi kube nezinkinga.
  • Intaba-mlilo: kungumsuka ongajwayelekile kepha kungadala nokuzamazama komhlaba. Uma ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kunodlame, kungadala ukushaqeka okukhulu okuthinta zonke izindawo eziseduze. Yize ingakwazi ukukhiqiza ukuzamazama komhlaba, inkambu yayo yokusebenza incane kakhulu uma uyiqhathanisa naleyo yemvelaphi yetectonic.
  • Ngokucwila: uma isenzo esiqhubekayo sokukhukhula samanzi angaphansi komhlaba senzeke ngaphakathi koqweqwe, zishiya isikhala futhi zigcine zishiya isisindo sengxenye engenhla. Lokhu kuwa komhlaba kudala ukudlidlizela okwaziwa njengokuzamazama komhlaba. Imvamisa yabo iphansi kakhulu futhi ithinta ngezinga elincane kakhulu.
  • Ukudilika komhlaba: Kungenzeka futhi ukuthi isisindo sentaba uqobo lwayo singaveza ukuzamazama komhlaba okuthile ngokubanga ukuwa komhlaba okuhambisana namaphutha. Ngokuvamile akuzona ukuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu, kodwa kunamagagasi amancane.
  • Ukuqhuma kwe-athomu: Zenziwa ngesikhathi sokuhlolwa kwabantu ngamabhomu e-athomu. Ngokusobala kungenzeka ukuthi kuqinisekiswe ukuthi kunokuhlobana phakathi kokunyakaza kokuzamazama komhlaba nokuqhuma kwamabhomu e-athomu.

Yini i-seismogram

Lapho ukuzamazama komhlaba kuqala ukuthumela amagagasi kusuka esikhungweni se-hypo kuya enkabeni, umshini owaziwa ngokuthi i-seismograph unesibopho sokukala ubukhulu bala magagasi. Ukurekhodwa kwawo wonke amagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba kuphawulwa ku-seismogram. I-Seismogram ingaqoqa yonke imininingwane yokuzamazama komhlaba. Kuwo, amahora, umfutho, isivinini kanye nebanga lapho kwenzeka khona ukuzamazama komhlaba kuyabhalwa.

Ngoba isivinini sezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagagasi sehlukile, zinganikeza imininingwane enkulu ngokuzamazama komhlaba uqobo. Amagagasi e-P yiwona ayisisekelo anejubane elikhulu. Amagagasi e-S yiwo ahamba ngesivinini esincane. Babizwa ngamagagasi angaphezulu. Umehluko phakathi kwesivinini sohlobo ngalunye lwegagasi yilowo osetshenziselwa ukucacisa lapho kugxila khona ukuzamazama komhlaba.

Sikukala kanjani ukuzamazama komhlaba

Amandla okuzamazama komhlaba ahamba ngendlela yokudlidliza. La magagasi wokuzamazama komhlaba abhaliswe ngenxa ye-seismograph. Le divayisi izokhombisa ukuqina nobukhulu bokundindizela kwamagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba. I-seismogram ikhomba uchungechunge lonke lwama-zig-zags ephepheni lapho, ekugcineni, konke ukushuba kwamagagasi obe nokuzamazama komhlaba kube nakho kuzomelwa.

Kulapha lapho singabona khona isikhathi, indawo nobukhulu bokuzamazama komhlaba ngokususelwa kulwazi olwembulwe yi-seismogram. Futhi ingaveza imininingwane ngohlobo lwedwala adlula kulo amagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba.

Izilinganiso ze-seismogram ngezesikali sikaRichter. Lesi sikali sobukhulu senziwa ngo-1935 yisazi sokuzamazama komhlaba uCharles Richter futhi amanani asukela ku-1 kuye ekugcineni. Lokhu kukalwa kokulinganisa. Iphethe ukukala amandla okuzamazama komhlaba akhishwa ekuzamazameni komhlaba ngakunye ngaphandle kokuqina kwawo. Ukukalwa kwalo kusekelwe ikakhulu kububanzi begagasi elirekhodwa yiseismogram.

Kuze kube namuhla, le yindlela eyaziwa kakhulu futhi esetshenziswa kakhulu yokuhlukanisa ukuzamazama komhlaba. Ngokombono akukho mikhawulo kulesi sikali, kepha isikali esingu-9 sesivele sisho ukubhujiswa okuphelele. Ukuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu kunakho konke okwake kwenzeka emlandweni kwenzeka eChile ngo-1960 kwafinyelela ku-9.5 esikalini sikaRichter.

Ama-seismograms aqopha ukunyakaza kwemvelo noma okwenziwe komhlaba. Lokhu kuhamba okungokwemvelo kungenxa yokuhamba kwezwekazi kwamapuleti etektoni. Kokubili ukungqubuzana, ukungqubuzana phakathi kwezinto ezizungezile namuhla ukuqhekeka kwezinto kukhipha amandla ngezindlela ezihlukile. Lezi zinhlobo zivame ukuba ngamagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba. Isivinini lawa ma-oscillations ahamba ngaso phakathi singaba nemininingwane emikhulu yokwazi i-hypocenter yokuzamazama komhlaba. Konke lokhu kukhanya kungabonakala ku-seismogram.

I-seismometer inezinto ezimbili: okuvundlile nokumile mpo. Iyakwazi ukubhalisa isignali ngezinto zayo ezimbili ngokungezelela kwesithathu okuqondile. Inhloso ngamandla unqume ijubane elifanele lamagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba futhi ukwazi ukuthola kahle i-hypocenter yokuzamazama komhlaba. Ukwazi i-hypocenter yokuzamazama komhlaba, kungenzeka wazi ukuthi indawo ebabazekayo izotholakala ime mpo.

Seismogram nokuqopha

Nge-seismogram, ijubane lamagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba lingabonakala, okuvame ukuba amagagasi angaphezulu noma amagagasi omzimba (amagagasi e-P namagagasi e-S). Igagasi lokuqala elibhalisiwe yi-P ngoba yiyo enejubane eliphezulu.

Ngokuya ngohlobo lomcimbi wokuzamazama komhlaba kunezinhlobo eziningana zesismogram. Kukhona ama-seismograms we imicimbi yendawo, yesifunda, yocingo, ukuqhuma kwenuzi, ukuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu, ukunyakaza kwentaba-mlilo nokuzamazama komhlaba. Zonke lezi zinhlobo zakha amasiginali ahlukile anezici zawo ezisiza i-seismogram iveze ukuthi hlobo luni lomcimbi olwenzekile.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-seismogram.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.