I-Troposphere

troposphere

Ngaphakathi izingqimba zomkhathi sinabaphansi kakhulu okuyilapho sihlala khona futhi okwaziwa ngegama le- troposphere. Zisuka ebusweni bomhlaba ziye ekuqaleni kwe-stratosphere, lokhu kuyisendlalelo lapho ungqimba lwe-ozone lutholakala khona. I-troposphere ifaka umoya esiwuphefumulayo nazo zonke izinqubo zezulu nesimo sezulu emhlabeni. Ngalesi sizathu, kube ngesinye sezendlalelo ezibaluleke kakhulu kumkhathi womhlaba.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nokubaluleka kwe-troposphere.

Izici eziyinhloko

izingqimba zomkhathi

Lapho sehla ngomgwaqo futhi sizwa umoya ebusweni bethu noma sibheka amafu esibhakabhakeni, izinyoni ziyandiza, zonke lezi zinto zingaphansi kwe-troposphere. Kubonakala ikakhulu ukwehla kwezinga lokushisa njengoba ukuphakama kukhuphuka. Njalo uma sikhuphuka ngobude siyehlisa izinga lokushisa ngoba imisebe yelanga ewela phansi ayisasebenzi njengesilawuli sokushisa. Kuwo wonke amamitha ayizinkulungwane okushisa ifinyelela kuma-6.5 degrees.

Umoya ku-troposphere uba mncane kakhulu njengoba ukuphakama kukhuphuka. Lesi yisona sizathu esenza abagibeli bezintaba bavame ukusebenzisa umoya-mpilo wamabhodlela ukuphefumula. Lolu ungqimba cishe lungamakhilomitha ayi-8-14 ubukhulu kuya ngendawo esikuyo. I-thinnest ezindaweni zesigodi esisenyakatho nasogwini oluseningizimu kanti ingxenye yaso ebanzi kakhulu ingatholakala engxenyeni ye-Equator.

Isendlalelo ngokushesha ngenhla kwe-troposphere yi-stratosphere. Umngcele ophakathi kwalezi zingqimba ezimbili waziwa ngegama le- ukuyeka kancane. Ku-stratosphere kukhona ungqimba lwe-ozone okuyilona olusivikela emisebeni yelanga eyingozi futhi evikela isikhumba sethu. Umoya uqine futhi troposphere kunanoma iyiphi enye ungqimba emkhathini. Empeleni, kuyaziwa ukuthi i-troposphere imele u-80% wobukhulu bawo wonke umkhathi. Lapho phezulu kwefu ngesikhathi sesiphepho kugudluka kube isimo se-anvil, imvamisa kungenxa yokuthi ukuvuselelwa kwesiphepho sekuvele kufinyelele ku-tropopause. E-tropopaus, umoya omile ufudumele kunesiphepho bese uyeka ukukhuphuka.

Ukwakheka komoya kule ungqimba yakhiwe yi-78% nitrogen ne-21% oxygen. I-1% esele yakhiwe nge-argon, umhwamuko wamanzi, ne-carbon dioxide. I-Carbon dioxide yaziwa ukuthi inyuke ngokulingana eminyakeni edlule ngenxa yokukhishwa komuntu. Ingxenye engezansi ye-troposphere, okuyindawo esondele kakhulu ebusweni bomhlaba, ibizwa ngokuthi ungqimba lomngcele.

Umehluko phakathi kwe-stratosphere ne-troposphere

Okokuqala, ngukuveza ukuthi umkhathi unezendlalelo ezahlukahlukene. Okuphansi kakhulu yi-troposphere futhi ngenhla nje kune-stratosphere. Ngenxa yezici ezahlukahlukene, kufanele zihlukaniswe njengezendlalelo ezahlukahlukene. Futhi ngukuthi ngayinye inezici ezihlukile nokuhluka kwesimo sezulu. I- umfutho womoya, izinga lokushisa, i-gradient yokushisa, isivinini somoya, nokuqondisa komoya zihlukile kumakhamera womabili.

Umkhawulo wamadili uzoba futhi i-troposphere ibizwa nge-tropopause futhi akuyona indawo ehlala njalo. Imvamisa itholakala ebangeni lamakhilomitha ayi-8-14 ukusuka olwandle futhi iyi-isotherm. Lokhu kusho ukuthi yindawo lapho izinga lokushisa lizinzile khona. Amaphethini wesimo sezulu njengoba sazi ukuthi ilanga livela kwi-troposphere njengoba umoya oseduze komhlaba ufudumele kunomoya ezindaweni eziphakeme. Lokhu kwenzeka ngoba inhlabathi imunca ukushisa kwelanga ekukhanyeni. Ngale gradient yokushisa engemihle maqondana nokuphakama, umoya oshisayo uyakwazi ukukhuphuka futhi wakhe i-convection current. Le mizila ye-convection yiyo ekhiqiza imibuso yomoya namafu.

Ngokuphambene nalokho, ku-stratosphere ungqimba lwe-ozone luphethe ukudonsa ukukhanya kwelanga usuku nosuku ukushisa phansi. Lapha izinga lokushisa liyanda ngokuphakama. I-stratosphere icishe ibe ngamakhilomitha angama-50 ukuphakama. Ngokubheka ukuthi umswakama wekhwalithi yomoya ofudumele uvama ukukhuphuka nomoya obandayo wehle, imimoya, amafu emvula akha i-troposphere hhayi ku-stratosphere. Kule ungqimba, izimo zizinzile kakhulu njengoba umfutho womoya uphansi kakhulu futhi umoya ofudumele uvimbela ukwakheka kwemisinga ye-convection. Akukho siphithiphithi nomoya ozinzile. Ishaya ngendlela ezinzile futhi evundlile, ngakho-ke izindiza zentengiso zindiza ku-stratosphere engezansi ukugwema lesiyaluyalu.

I-troposphere iqukethe izungeze i- Ama-75% amagesi asemkhathini, kanti i-stratosphere ine-19% kuphela.

Ukubaluleka kwe-troposphere

umoya ku-troposphere

Lolu ungqimba selube olubaluleke kakhulu kuyo yonke iplanethi njengoba luzwela kakhulu ezinqubweni ezenzeka kuleli zinga. Ukuguquguquka kwezilwandle kanye nomjikelezo wamanzi, i-photosynthesis yezitshalo, ukuphefumula kwezilwane kanye nemisebenzi yabantu kwenzeka ku-troposphere. Ngaphezu kwalokho, Ungqimba lomkhathi lapho isimo sezulu senzeka khona.

Ingcindezi yomkhathi engxenyeni engenhla icishe ibe yingxenye yesihlanu yalokho engxenyeni engezansi. Lokho wukuthi, uma i-troposphere sonke singafa ngokugula okuphezulu ezinsukwini ezimbalwa. Iningi lomphumela wokushisa okushisayo kungenxa yomphunga wamanzi onqwabelana engxenyeni engezansi yomkhathi. Ngaphandle kwalolu ungqimba, umphumela wokushisa okushisayo ungaba ngaphansi kakhulu futhi ekugcineni ulwandle lube yiqhwa. Yize muva nje kukhulunywa kakhulu ngomphumela wokubamba ukushisa njengokuthile okungekuhle, kuyinqubo umhlaba odinga ukuvumela impilo njengoba sazi.

Enye yezinkinga ezinkulu esinazo namuhla ezithathwe emisebenzini yabantu ukungcoliswa kwe-troposphere. Intuthu eyakha ngesikhathi semisebenzi yabantu nasemadolobheni kuyindlela esobala kakhulu yokungcola komoyafuthi. Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zokungcola noma ngabe ziyabonakala noma cha. Kodwa-ke, zonke izinhlobo zokungcola komoya zifaka isandla ekwandiseni umphumela wokushisa nokushisa komhlaba. Noma iyiphi into abantu abayilahla emkhathini futhi enemiphumela emibi ezenzweni eziphilayo endaweni ibhekwa njengengcolisayo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-troposphere nezimpawu zayo eziyinhloko.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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