Yini i-portulan

Amamephu Wasendulo WasePortulan

Amamephu ne-cartography bekungahlali kucacisiwe njengalokho esinakho namuhla. Ngaphambi kokuthuthukiswa kwamabalazwe wesimanje, into yokuqala eyasetshenziselwa ukuzulazula kwakungamashadi we-portulan. Lokhu kwabizwa portulan. La mashadi wokuzulazula abaluleke kakhulu ngekhulu leshumi nane kanye neshumi nanhlanu leminyaka ngokunikezwa kokubaluleka abenakho kwezohwebo.

Kule ndatshana sizochaza ukuthi yini i-portulan nokuthi kwakubaluleke ngani esikhathini esedlule.

Yini i-portulan

I-Portulan

Lawa ngamamephu wokuzulazula ayekhona endulo futhi anikeze umfutho omkhulu ekuhwebeni. Ngaphandle kweziphuphutheki ze-GPS njengalezi esinazo namuhla, ukuhamba kwemikhumbi bekuyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu. Ukuze kuthuthwe izimpahla zisuka kwenye indawo ziye kwenye zihlukaniswe ulwandle, imizila yasolwandle esheshayo bekufanele yaziwe futhi konke lokhu noma ukuba khona kwe portulan kwenziwa lula.

Ikakhulukazi oLwandle iMedithera ubukhona bamaPortulans ibiyisihluthulelo sempumelelo njengoba ivumela amatilosi ukuba aziqonde esebenzisa ikhampasi kanye nokukwazi ukuthola ibanga eliphakathi kwamachweba nezimpawu ezibaluleke kakhulu. Ngalezi zakhiwo kwakwenzeka ukuthi kwandiswe ezohwebo ngokushesha okukhulu.

Uma sibheka i-portulan siyabona ukuthi inokubukeka kwemephu ejwayelekile neyamanje. Kodwa-ke, siyabona ukuthi inokwehluka okubalulekile. Okokuqala ukuthi esikhundleni sokufana nama-meridians banegridi ebisebenza ngokufana okumakwe yikhampasi rose. Ukwethulwa kokufana kanye nabalamuli kwafika kamuva nokwethulwa kwemidwebo yesimanje yokudweba imidwebo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, yize kuyimephu yesikali, amabanga akhonjiswa kumaligi.

Izici eziyinhloko

Izinhlobo zemephu yasePortulan

Kula mabalazwe amadala kunomdwebo wasogwini lapho amachweba atholakala khona ngendlela ethembekile eqinisweni. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi uma ubhekisisa uyabona ukuthi izingozi ezisogwini zenziwa ihaba kanjani. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kwenziwa ngamabomu ukuxwayisa imikhumbi nokuqapha lapho ufinyelela ogwini.

Esinye isici sabantu basePortugal ukuthi izinto ezahlukahlukene zokuhlobisa zengezwe kumklamo owawunikeza imininingwane yezwe, ezepolitiki, ezomlando nezesayensi. Ngokwesibonelo, kube nezikhathi lapho ubungabona ezinye izindawo ezingazange zihlolwe. Abadwebi bamabalazwe benza lokhu ngokususelwa ezinkolelweni zabo nasekucabangeni kwezihlakaniphi zangaleso sikhathi. Lokho wukuthi, kungaba khona amazwe angena ngaphakathi kwe-portulano ngaphandle kokuthi abekhona.

La mashadi asePortulan ayeyimibhalo yenani elikhulu lamasu nezomnotho amakhulu eminyaka. Kuhle ukuthi abaphangi bathole izindawo zokugasela noma zokufihla ingcebo. Zazibhekwa njengezinto ezihlonishwayo futhi zaziswa kakhulu ngokubabazekayo nobuhle bazo kunokubaluleka kwazo. Njengoba bekulindelekile, bezinganembile ngo-100%, ngakho-ke inani lobudala be-cartographic yabo liphansi impela uma liqhathaniswa namamephu amanje.

Izinhlobo ze-portulan

Izinhlobonhlobo zamamephu we-portulan

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ze-portulan ngokuya ngemvelaphi yazo. Bahlukaniswe ngamaqembu amakhulu ama-3 ngokwendawo abenziwe kuyo: sine-Italian, Mallorcan nePortugal Portulans. Sizozihlaziya ngamunye ngamunye futhi sazi zonke izici zayo.

I-Italian Portulan

Yizo lezo ezenziwe ikakhulukazi eGenoa, eVenice naseRoma. Lawa ngamashadi ezindala kunawo wonke okugcina izinto asagcinwe kuNational Library yaseParis. Ishadi lokuzula elidala kunawo wonke libizwa ngePisan Chart. Abanye abantu base-Italy abadumile kakhulu Incwadi kaCarignano (kulezi zinsuku eyodwa ayikatholakali, ayitholakali), kanye namanye ama-portulans enziwe ngabakwa-Genoese Pietro Vesconte, abakwa-Beccario, uFrancisco Pizigano, uCanepa kanye nabazalwane baseBenincasa.

AmaPortugal aseMajorcan

Lawa ma-portulan afaka ezinye izinto ezintsha ezifana namashadi we-nautical-geographical ngenxa yokwakhiwa kwe-Majorcan Jewish UCresques Abraham. Umsebenzi owaziwa kakhulu walomJuda kwakuyibalazwe lomhlaba elenziwe ngo-1375. Kumele sicabangele ukufaneleka kokwenza imephu yomhlaba ngesikhathi lapho iziphuphutheki zokwenziwa zazingekho futhi kungaphenywa ngobuchwepheshe obufanayo esinayo namuhla.

Le mephu yomhlaba yenziwa ematafuleni ayi-12 ayevulelwa omunye nomunye umqulu. Okwanamuhla kugcinwe kumtapo wezincwadi kazwelonke eParis. Kungokokuqala ukuthi lonke inani lemininingwane ebelikhona mayelana namazwekazi, ikakhulukazi elase-Asia, lithwetshulwe nokuthi lafika eYurophu ngenxa yabahloli abafana noMarco Polo, Jordanus nabanye.

AmaPortugal asePortugal

Lawa mashadi we-portulan athuthukiswe ngokususelwa kulawo aseMajorcan. Bahlala isikhashana ngaphandle kokuphelelwa yisikhathi lapho ukutholwa kwabasolwandle baseSpain nabasePortugal kudinga izidingo ezinkulu lezo abasePortugal abadala ababengazithola vele.

Kulesi sikhathi esifanayo somlando, amanye amashadi asePortulan nawo athuthukiswa ezweni lama-Arabhu. Lezi zinhlamvu zazigxile eLwandle iMedithera. Kwesinye sazo, esaba ngesinye sezindawo ezidume kakhulu, ezinye izindawo zaseMelika ezisanda kutholwa ngaleso sikhathi zizomelwa. Sikhuluma ngemephu kaPiri Reis ngo-1513 (sikhumbula ukuthi iMelika yatholwa ngoChristopher Columbus ngo-1492). Kule portulan ungathola futhi amanye amazwe ayengakahlolwa kepha achazwa ngokuthembeka okumangazayo kweqiniso.

Ukuba wusizo kwalawa mabalazwe kulele ekunikezeni okuthile ukusebenza kwekhampasi. Uma kukhulunywa ngokuhamba ngokuzula, kuyathakazelisa ukwazi iDirection okufanele siye kuyo, kepha okubaluleke nakakhulu ukwazi ukuthi uyaphi. Singaziphonsa ngokuma kwekhampasi ukuze sazi ukuthi sikuphi noma ukuthi siqondiswa kuphi. Kodwa-ke, ukusetshenziswa ngokuhlanganyela kwekhampasi kanye ne-portulan, yikho okwenza amatilosi akwazi ukufinyelela ezindaweni ezihlongozwayo.

Njengoba ubona, i-portulan yasiza kakhulu ukuthuthukisa ukuhweba ngaleso sikhathi. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngalezi zimephu ze-cartographic.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.