I-Paleozoic

i-geology yasendulo

Esikhathini sokwakheka komhlaba singahlukanisa izinkathi ezahlukahlukene, izinkathi nezikhathi lapho isikhathi sihlukaniswa ngokuya ngokuziphendukela kwemvelo, isimo sezulu kanye nokuhlukahluka kwezinto eziphilayo. Esinye sezigaba ezintathu lapho umbhalo we-Phanerozoic uhlukaniswe khona yi I-Paleozoic. Yisikhathi soguquko esikhomba ukuvela phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo zasendulo kuya ezintweni eziguquke kakhulu ezikwaziyo ukunqoba izindawo zokuhlala zasemhlabeni.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, i-geology, isimo sezulu, izimbali nezilwane zePaleozoic.

Izici eziyinhloko

phalaphala

Izinto eziphilayo ezinamaseli amaningi zenze uchungechunge lwezinguquko ezivumela ukuba zivumelane nemvelo yasemhlabeni, okubaluleke kakhulu ukwakhiwa kwamaqanda e-amniotic. Ngokombono we-geology, i-biology kanye nesimo sezulu, iPaleozoic ngokungangabazeki isikhathi soshintsho olukhulu emhlabeni. Ngokuqhubeka kwesikhathi, izinguquko zenzeka zilandelana, ezinye zazo zibhalwe kahle, kanti ezinye azenzekanga kangako.

I-Paleozoic ihlale cishe kusuka ku- Eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-541 edlule kuya eminyakeni ecishe ibe yizigidi ezingama-252. Ihlale cishe iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-290. Kule nkathi, izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo zasolwandle nezomhlaba zikhombise ukwehluka okukhulu. Kwaba ngesinye sezikhathi lapho izinto eziphilayo zahluka kakhulu, zanda ngokukhethekile, futhi zakwazi nokushiya izindawo zasolwandle nokunqoba isikhala somhlaba.

Ekupheleni kwalesi sikhathi, kwakhiwa i-supercontinent ebizwa ngePangea futhi kamuva yahlukaniswa yaba izwekazi elaziwa namuhla. Kuwo wonke ama-Paleozoic, izinga lokushisa elizungezile laguquguquka kakhulu. Isikhathi esithile ihlala ishisa futhi inomswakama, kanti ezinye ziyancipha kakhulu. Kangangokuthi kube nezinguzunga zeqhwa eziningana. Ngokufanayo, ekupheleni kwalesi sikhathi, izimo zezemvelo zaba zimbi kakhulu kangangokuba kwenzeka umcimbi omkhulu wokuqothulwa, obizwa ngokuthi ukuqothulwa okukhulu, lapho cishe khona 95% wezinhlobo ezihlala emhlabeni zanyamalala.

I-Paleozoic Geology

Izinsalela zePaleozoic

Ngokombono wokuma komhlaba, iPaleozoic ishintshe kakhulu. Umcimbi wokuqala omkhulu wokwakheka komhlaba ngalesi sikhathi kwaba ukwehlukaniswa kwezwekazi elikhulu elaziwa ngokuthi yiPangea 1. IPangea 1 ihlukaniswe yaba amazwekazi amaningi, ikwenza kubonakale njengesiqhingi esizungezwe amalwandle angajulile. Lezi ziqhingi yilezi ezilandelayo: iLaurentia, iGondwana kanye neNingizimu Melika.

Ngaphandle kwalokhu kwehlukana, ngokuhamba kwezinkulungwane zeminyaka lezi ziqhingi zasondelana ndawonye futhi ekugcineni zakha indawo enkulu yezwekazi elisha: IPangea II. Ngokunjalo, ngalesi sikhathi izenzakalo ezimbili ezibaluleke kakhulu zokwakheka komhlaba zenzeka ukukhululeka komhlaba: i-Caledonia orogeny ne-Hercynian orogeny.

Phakathi neminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-300 edlule yePaleozoic, uchungechunge lwezinguquko lwendawo lwenzeka ngenxa yamapheshana amakhulu omhlaba ayekhona ngaleso sikhathi. Esikhathini sokuqala sePaleozoic, inani elikhulu lalezi zindawo laliseduze nenkabazwe. ILaurentia, uLwandle iBaltic neSiberia ziyahlangana ezindaweni ezishisayo. Ngemuva kwalokho, uLaurentia waqala ukuthuthela enyakatho.

Cishe esikhathini seSilurian, izwekazi elaziwa ngokuthi iBaltic Sea lajoyina iLaurentia. Izwekazi elakhiwe lapha libizwa ngeLaurasia. Ekugcineni, izwekazi eliphakeme elasungulwa kamuva e-Afrika naseNingizimu Melika lashayisana neLaurasia, kwakheka izwe elibizwa ngePangea.

Isimo sezulu

Awekho amarekhodi amaningi athembekile wokuthi isimo sezulu sasePaleozoic sokuqala kufanele sibe njani. Kodwa-ke, ochwepheshe bakholelwa ukuthi ngenxa yolwandle olukhulu, isimo sezulu kufanele sibe sesilinganisweni futhi sibe nolwandle. I-Lower Paleozoic Era yaphela nge-Ice Age, izinga lokushisa lehla, futhi inani elikhulu lezinhlobo zafa. Kamuva kwaba yisikhathi sesimo sezulu esizinzile, isimo sezulu sasishisa futhi sinomswakama, futhi kwakukhona nesikhutha esiningi esitholakalayo emkhathini.

Njengoba izitshalo zihlala ezindaweni ezisemhlabeni, umoya-mpilo emkhathini uyanda, kuyilapho i-carbon dioxide incipha. Ngenkathi inkathi iqhubeka, isimo sezulu siyashintsha. Ekupheleni kwePermian, izimo zezulu zenza impilo yacishe yahluleka. Yize izizathu zalolu shintsho zingakaziwa (kunemicabango embalwa), okwaziwayo ukuthi izimo zemvelo sezishintshile futhi izinga lokushisa lenyuke ngama-degree ambalwa, okufudumeze umoya.

Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo zePaleozoic

ukuthuthukiswa kwemvelo

Flora

EPaleozoic, izitshalo zokuqala noma izinto ezifana nezitshalo kwakungu-algae nesikhunta, okwakhula ezindaweni ezihlala emanzini. Kamuva, esigabeni esilandelayo sokuhlukaniswa kwalesi sikhathi, kufakazelwa lokho izitshalo zokuqala eziluhlaza zaqala ukuvela, ngenxa yokuqukethwe yi-chlorophyll, eyaqala inqubo ye-photosynthesis, ebhekele ikakhulu okuqukethwe umoya-mpilo emkhathini womhlaba. Lezi zitshalo zingezakudala kakhulu futhi azinazo iziqukathi ezihambisa, ngakho-ke kufanele zitholakale ezindaweni ezinomswakama ophezulu.

Kamuva kwavela izitshalo zokuqala zemithambo. Lezi zitshalo ziqukethe imithambo yegazi ehambayo (i-xylem ne-phloem) emunca izakhi zomzimba futhi ijikeleze amanzi ngezimpande. Kamuva, izimbali zakhula futhi zahlukahluka ngokwengeziwe. Amafeni, izitshalo ezihlwanyelwe izihlahla kanye nezihlahla zokuqala ezinkulu kwavela, futhi lezo ezingohlanga lwe-Archeopteryx zathola idumela elihle ngoba zaziyizihlahla zokuqala zangempela ukuvela. Ubulembu bokuqala babuye bavela ngeNkathi yePaleozoic.

Lokhu kwehlukahluka okukhulu kwezitshalo kwahlala kwaze kwaphela ukuphela kwePermian, lapho kwenzeka lokho okubizwa ngokuthi "ukufa okukhulu", lapho cishe zonke izinhlobo zezitshalo ezazihlala emhlabeni zingasekho.

Fauna

Ngezilwane, inkathi yePaleozoic nayo iyisikhathi esiguqukayo, ngoba ezihlukanisweni eziyisithupha ezakha le nkathi, izilwane ziyahlukahluka futhi ziyaguquka, kusuka ezilwaneni ezincane kuya ezihuquzelayo ezinkulu, ziqala ukubusa imvelo yasemhlabeni.

Esikhathini sokuqala sePaleozoic, izilwane zokuqala ezaqashelwa kwakuyizinto ezibizwa ngokuthi ama-trilobites, amanye ama-vertebrate, ama-mollusk, kanye ne-chordates. Kukhona nezipanji nama-brachiopods. Kamuva, amaqembu ezilwane ahluka kakhulu. Isibonelo, ama-cephalopods anamagobolondo, ama-bivalves (izilwane ezinamagobolondo amabili) namakhorali avele. Futhi, ngalesi sikhathi kwavela abameleli bokuqala be-Echinoderm phylum.

Ngesikhathi seSilurian, kwavela inhlanzi yokuqala. Abamele leli qembu izinhlanzi zomhlathi nezinhlanzi ezingenamhlathi. Ngokufanayo, kwavela nezinhlobo zeqembu lama-myriapods.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngePaleozoic nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.