Lakhiwa nini iLanga?

lapho ilanga kwakheka

Ngenxa yelanga singaba nokuphila emhlabeni wethu. Umhlaba usendaweni ebizwa ngokuthi indawo okuhlalwa kuyo lapho, ngenxa yebanga elivela elangeni, singakwazi ukwengeza ukuphila. Nokho, ososayensi bebelokhu bengabaza lakha nini ilanga futhi kusukela lapho ukuthi isimiso sonozungezilanga esinaso namuhla sakhiqizwa kanjani.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi ilanga lakhiwa nini, izici zalo nokubaluleka kwalo.

Liyini ilanga

uhlelo lwelanga

Ilanga silibiza ngenkanyezi eseduze kakhulu neplanethi yethu (amakhilomitha ayizigidi ezingu-149,6). Wonke amaplanethi esimiso sonozungezilanga alizungeza, akhangwe amandla adonsela phansi, kanye nezinkanyezi ezinomsila nama-asteroids ahambisana nawo. ILanga liyinkanyezi evamile emthaleni wethu, okungukuthi, aligqami ngokuba likhulu kakhulu noma lincane kunezinye izinkanyezi.

I-G2 yellow dwarf ehamba ngokulandelana okuyinhloko kwempilo yayo. Ilele engalweni ezungezayo emaphethelweni e-Milky Way, cishe iminyaka engu-26.000 yokukhanya ukusuka enkabeni yayo. Kukhulu ngokwanele ukubala u-99% wesisindo sohlelo sonozungezilanga, noma izikhathi ezingu-743 ubukhulu bawo wonke amaplanethi eplanethi efanayo ehlangene (cishe izikhathi ezingu-330.000 ubukhulu boMhlaba).

Ilanga, ngakolunye uhlangothi, Inobubanzi obungamakhilomitha ayizigidi eziyi-1,4 futhi iyinto enkulu futhi ekhanya kakhulu esibhakabhakeni soMhlaba., ukuba khona kwakhe kuhlukanisa imini nobusuku. Ngenxa yokuphuma kwayo njalo kwemisebe ye-electromagnetic (kuhlanganise nokukhanya okucatshangwayo), iplanethi yethu ithola ukushisa nokukhanya, okwenza ukuphila kwenzeke.

Lakhiwa nini iLanga?

lapho ilanga liqala ukuvela

Njengazo zonke izinkanyezi, iLanga lakha igesi nezinye izinto ezaziyingxenye yefu lama-molecule amakhulu. Ifu labhidlika ngaphansi kwamandla alo adonsela phansi eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-4.600 edlule. Sonke isimiso sonozungezilanga sivela efwini elifanayo.

Ekugcineni, igesi iba minyene kangangokuthi ibangela ukusabela kwenuzi “okuthungela” umnyombo wenkanyezi. Lena inqubo yokwakheka evamile yalezi zinto.

Njengoba i-hydrogen yelanga isetshenziswa, iguqulwa ibe i-helium. ILanga liyibhola elikhulu le-plasma, elicishe libe yindilinga ngokuphelele, yakhiwe ikakhulukazi i-hydrogen (74,9%) ne-helium (23,8%). Ngaphezu kwalokho, iqukethe izakhi zokulandelela (2%) ezifana ne-oxygen, i-carbon, neon ne-iron.

I-Hydrogen, into evuthayo yelanga, iguqulela ku-helium lapho idliwe, ishiya ungqimba "lwe-helium ash." Lesi sendlalelo sizokwanda njengoba inkanyezi iqeda umjikelezo wayo wokuphila oyinhloko.

Isakhiwo nezici

izici zelanga

Umongo uthatha ingxenye eyodwa kwezinhlanu zesakhiwo selanga. Ilanga liyindilinga futhi liphansi kancane ezigxotsheni ngenxa yokunyakaza kwalo okuzungezayo. Ibhalansi yayo engokomzimba (amandla e-hydrostatic) kungenxa yesisindo sangaphakathi samandla adonsela phansi amakhulu alinikeza isisindo sawo kanye nomfutho wokuqhuma kwangaphakathi. Lokhu kuqhuma kukhiqizwa ukusabela kwenuzi kokuhlangana okukhulu kwe-hydrogen.

Yakhiwe ngezingqimba, njengo-anyanisi. Lezi zingqimba ziyi:

  • I-nucleus. Indawo engaphakathi impela. Ithatha ingxenye eyodwa kwezinhlanu zenkanyezi futhi inendawo engaba ngu-139.000 km iyonke. Yilapho ukuqhuma okukhulu kwe-athomu kwenzeka khona elangeni. Amandla adonsela phansi emnyombweni anamandla kangangokuthi amandla akhiqizwa ngale ndlela angathatha iminyaka eyisigidi ukuze akhuphukele phezulu.
  • Indawo ekhazimulayo. Yakhiwe nge-plasma (i-helium ne-hydrogen ionized). Le ndawo ivumela amandla angaphakathi avela elangeni ukuba akhiphe kalula ngaphandle, enciphisa kakhulu izinga lokushisa kule ndawo.
  • indawo ye-convection. Kulesi sifunda, igesi ayisekho i-ionized, ngakho-ke kuba nzima kakhulu ukuthi amandla (ama-photons) abaleke aye ngaphandle futhi kufanele enziwe nge-convection eshisayo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi uketshezi lushisa ngokulinganayo, lubangele ukwanda, ukulahlekelwa ukuminyana, nemisinga ekhuphukayo neyehlayo, njengamagagasi.
  • I-Photosphere. Lesi yisifunda esikhipha ukukhanya okuvela elangeni. Kukholakala ukuthi ziyizinhlamvu ezigqamile endaweni emnyama, nakuba iwungqimba olukhanyayo olungamakhilomitha angu-100 kuya kwangu-200 ukujula okukholakala ukuthi luwubuso beLanga.
  • I-Chromosphere. Ungqimba lwangaphandle lwe-photosphere ngokwalo lucwebezela kakhudlwana futhi lunzima ukulibona ngenxa yokuthi lusithwe ukukhanya kwesendlalelo sangaphambilini. Ilinganisa amakhilomitha angaba ngu-10.000 XNUMX ububanzi, futhi ngesikhathi sokufiphala kwelanga ingabonakala ngombala obomvu ngaphandle.
  • Umqhele welanga. Lezi yizingqimba ezincane kakhulu zomkhathi welanga elingaphandle futhi zifudumele kakhulu uma ziqhathaniswa nezingqimba ezingaphakathi. Lena enye yezimfihlakalo ezingakaxazululeki zemvelo yelanga. Kukhona ukuminyana okuphansi kwezinto kanye nenkundla kazibuthe enamandla, okuhamba ngayo amandla nezinto ezihamba ngesivinini esikhulu kakhulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iwumthombo wamaX-ray amaningi.

izinga lokushisa kwelanga

Izinga lokushisa kwelanga liyahlukahluka ngokwesifunda futhi liphezulu kakhulu kuzo zonke izifunda. Emazingeni okushisa aphakathi kwawo asondele ku-1,36 x 106 i-Kelvin (engaba ezigidini ezingu-15 degrees Celsius) ingaqoshwa, kuyilapho phezulu iwela cishe ku-5778 K (cishe u-5505 °C) futhi bese ubuyela phezulu ku-1 noma 2 Rise x 105 Kelvin.

Ilanga likhipha imisebe eminingi kagesi, eminye yayo engabonakala njengokukhanya kwelanga. Lokhu kukhanya kunebanga lamandla angu-1368 W/m2 kanye nebanga leyunithi eyodwa yezinkanyezi (AU), okuyibanga ukusuka eMhlabeni ukuya elangeni.

La mandla ancishiswa umkhathi weplanethi, ovumela cishe u-1000 W/m2 ukuthi udlule emini enkulu. Ukukhanya kwelanga kwakhiwe ngo-50% wokukhanya kwe-infrared, 40% ukukhanya okuvela ku-spectrum ebonakalayo, kanye no-10% wokukhanya kwe-ultraviolet.

Njengoba ubona, kungenxa yalenkanyezi emaphakathi ukuthi singaba nokuphila emhlabeni wethu. Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi ilanga lakhiwa nini kanye nezici zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.