Iziphepho, kungani zibizwa kanjalo?

I-Hurr-uslandfalling-1950-2007_570x375_scaled_cropp

Iziphepho ezahlasela eningizimu-ntshonalanga ye-United States phakathi kuka-1950 no-2007

Kulezi zinsuku ngemuva kwesiphepho I-Haiyan o U-Yolanda (njengoba kwaziwa ePhilippines) uzobe evuse ilukuluku kubafundi abaningi ukuthi la magama aqhamuka kuphi, kanjani nokuthi ngubani obanquma nokuthi ngasiphi isizathu kwezinye izimo, njengaleli, banegama elingaphezu kwelilodwa. Abanye bangaze bacabange ukuthi, kungani kungabi yiziphepho noma iziphepho ezinamandla ezizikhiqizayo kwesinye isikhathi nezigcinelwe zona lapho zifinyelela esiphephelweni noma esimweni sezulu esishisayo?

Iziphepho zithole amagama ahlukene kuwo wonke umlando. Ukuhlukaniswa kwabo kushintshile eminyakeni edlule ukufinyelela ohlelweni lohlu olusetshenziswa namuhla cishe yizo zonke izinsizakalo zezulu (I-WMO, NHC, PAGASA, njll).

Kwaphela amakhulu eminyaka, iziphepho zaqanjwa ngosanta wosuku ezenzeka ngalo ("iSan Felipe" ngo-1876 ePuerto Rico). Ekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX, usosayensi wezulu wase-Australia wabaqamba ngezombangazwe ababengazithandi. iziphepho ezishisayo. Ngesikhathi seMpi Yezwe II, amagama abesifazane abizwa ngabo. Ngemuva kwalokho, i-United States yahlela ukuyiqamba ngokulandelana kwefonotiki, yize ukwethulwa kwe-alfabhethi lefonotiki lomhlaba jikelele kwaholela ekubuyiselweni kwamagama abesifazane.

Ngaphambi kuka-1950 i-United States Military Meteorological Service yayinomthwalo wokwabela isibalo esivunguvungwini esishisayo. Isibonelo, isiphepho sesihlanu sendawo esishisayo senkathi yeSiphepho yango-1932 saqanjwa ngokuthi iNombolo 5. Eminyakeni eyalandela kwasetshenziswa izinhlamvu zamagama ezempi (Able, Baker, Charlie, etc.) ukwabela amagama.

Kamuva, ekuqaleni kuka-1953, izivunguvungu zasezindaweni ezishisayo zanikezwa amagama abesifazane. Amagama afakwe kuhlu ngokulandelana kwama-alfabhethi, okunikeza isiphepho sokuqala sonyaka oshisayo igama igama eliqala ngo-A.

Ngo-1978, amagama abesilisa nabesifazane afakwa ohlwini lwamagama eziphepho eNyakatho Pacific. Ngo-1979 uhlu lwamagama we-Atlantic Basin lwanda, kufaka phakathi namagama abesilisa nabesifazane. Namuhla, lapho ukuphazamiseka kwetropiki kukhuphuka kube yisiphepho esishisayo esinemimoya engaphezu kuka-63 km / h (39 mph) iNational Hurricane Center (NHC) isinika igama.

Ukunquma ukuthi yimaphi amagama azosetshenziswa, amazwe angamalungu e-World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) ahlala ebuyekeza izinhlu, kufaka phakathi amagama ajwayelekile abantu abakhuluma isiNgisi, abakhuluma iSpanish nabakhuluma isiFulentshi. Ukuhleleka kwamagama wesilisa nowesifazane kuyashintsha unyaka nonyaka. isibonelo, ngo-1995 uhlu lwaqala ngo-Allison kwathi ngo-1996 lwaqala ngo-Arthur.

Njengamanje, kunezinhla ezi-6 zamagama ezishingishane ezishisayo, amagama angama-21 eziphepho zase-Atlantic kanye nama-24 eziphepho enyakatho-mpumalanga yePacific. EPhilippines yiPAGASA (Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration) kusukela ngonyaka ka-2001, isebenzisa izinhlu ezine zamagama angama-25. Amagama kufanele abe mafushane futhi aqondakale kalula, akumele akhohlwe ukuthi angathinta amazwe amaningi. Lezi zinhlu zisetshenziswa minyaka yonke ngokushintshana (uhlu olusetshenziswe ngonyaka we-2011 lwalufana nango-2005, ngaphandle kwamagama asusiwe).

Uma kwenzeka kusetshenziswe wonke amagama ohlu, kudlula izishingishane ezingama-21 (ezingama-24 enyakatho-mpumalanga yePacific), laba abalandelayo baqala ukuqanjwa ngama-alfabhethi esiGreki: i-alpha, i-beta, njalonjalo. Endabeni yePhilippines, i-PAGASA isebenzisa uhlu olusizayo lwamagama lapho yeqa ama-25.

Kulolu hlu, kwezinye izikhathi lapho isiphepho besikade sichaphazela kakhulu futhi sabangela ukufa kwabantu abaningi, igama lakhe kuhlongozwa ukuthi lisuswe. Lesi senzo sokuhlonipha izisulu sibuye sigweme ukudideka ezinkampanini zomshuwalense, kwabezindaba, njll. Isibonelo ngo-2005 i-Katrina noma i- Sandy ngo-2012 namanye amagama afana no-Andrew, Bob, Camille, David, Dennis, njll.

Uma isiphepho esishisayo esivela e-Atlantic sifinyelela ePacific, sinikezwa igama elisha. Endabeni yeSiphepho uHaiyan, bekungama-ejensi amabili ahlukene anikeze lawo magama amabili ahlukene. ISishingishane uYolanda kunguye owasungulwa yiPAGASA.

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Inkomba - NOAA


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